Agriculture Development in Andhra Pradesh: Contribution to SGDP, changing cropping pattern and Government schemes to promote agriculture in Andhra Pradesh
The State of A.P, basically being Agro-Based economy, Agriculture & Allied sectors contribute more than 29% of the GSDP as against 17% in All India GDP. 10 major crops occupies 80% of the gross cropped area against 165 crops enumerated. Major 10 crops indentified as growth engines to accelerate the growth of the Agriculture Economy through special focussed strategies.
Cropping pattern change in Andhra pradesh
In 1970-71, the major crop grown in the state was rice. It covered 25.30 per cent of the gross cropped area of 13.04 M ha. The next major crop was sorghum (19.44%) followed by groundnut (11.58 %), small millets (6.59 %), pearl millet (4.25 %), green gram 3.66 (%) and horse gram (3.22 %). The area covered by finger millet, cotton, spices and fruits and vegetables each ranged between 2 and 3 per cent, while the area covered by maize, red gram, black gram, sesamum, tobacco and chillies ranged between 1 and 2 per cent only. The rest of the crops, viz. bengal gram, other pulses, sugarcane and other oilseeds covered less than 1 per cent each of the gross cropped area.
While the changes in the cropping pattern in the state during the period 1970-71 to 2004-2005, position of the most dominant crop, rice, remained more or less the same (see Fig. 1). In fact, the proportion of rice area in gross cropped area kept increasing reaching a peak of 31.27 per cent in 2000-2001. However, there was a drastic fall thereafter and in 2004-05 it fell to 25.17 per cent. The area under total cereals and millets also declined drastically, the only exception being maize. The proportion of area under maize increased from 1.95 per cent in 1970-71 to 2.55 per cent in 1980-81, 2.36 per cent in 1990-91, 3.67 per cent in 2000-2001 and 5.39 per cent in 2004-05. Similarly, a significant area increases in the prominence of pulses, especially, the bengal gram (chickpea), red gram and green gram except horse gram. The area under oilseeds was subjected to wide fluctuations mainly on account of groundnut. Though, a substantial shift was perceived in favour of the commercial crops, particularly, sugarcane, whereas, the area under other commercial crops, viz. chillies, tobacco and cotton was noted instable. An impeccable change in favour of the cultivation of spice crops and drugs and narcotics was witnessed in the state. Remarkably, the proportion of area under high-value crops (fruits and vegetables) increased from 2.7 per cent in 1970-71 to 3.8 per cent in 1990-91 but after 1990s, it uplifted rapidly reaching 6.06 per cent in 2000-01 and 6.90 per cent in 2004-05.
The shifts in cropping pattern differed significantly across the three regions, viz. coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana. In 1970-71, the predominant crop in the coastal Andhra region was rice. The proportion of area under rice declined from 43.86 per cent in 1970-71 to 39.59 per cent in 2004-05. The area under coarse cereals also declined drastically. On the other side, a significant shift was observed in favour of pulses: green gram, horse gram, black gram); commercial crops (sugarcane, cotton, chillies); and high-value crops (fruits and vegetables).
In the Rayalaseema region, the principal crop was groundnut and the area under groundnut grew impressive growth 29.39 per cent of the gross cropped area in 1970-71 to 45.61 per cent in 2004-05. However, a drastic decline was seen in the area under coarse cereals, but, a progressive shift in favour of maize cultivation, especially, in Anantapur district. The proportion of area under pulses has exhibited a optimistic growth, 5.98 per cent in 1970-71 to 12.80 per cent in 2004-2005: more towards bengal gram (chickpea) and red gram. Nevertheless, a notable shift in cropping pattern was observed in favour of high-value crops (fruits and vegetables) in this region.
Until 1980s sorghum was the main crop in the Telangana region and area under this was somehow increased from 29.35 per cent in 1970- 71 and 29.47 per cent 1980-81, but, after that sorghum area was declined drastically to 17.47 per cent in 1990-91 and further to 9.73 per cent in 2004-05. The area under commercial crop cotton has exhibited sharply increasing from 1.85 per cent in 1970-71 to 13.98 per cent in 2004-05. The cropping pattern changes in favour of chillies, spice crops and fruits and vegetables was witnessed in all the periods.
Remarkably, significant area gains were identified in the crops like maize, bengal gram (chickpea) and red gram in all the three regions of the state. For instance, in 2000-01 onwards, the expansion of area under maize and bengal gram (chickpea) crop noticed increasing growth due to the adoption of single cross hybrids. Particularly, there are eight districts includes Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak and Khammam in Telangana region and Guntur and West Godavari districts in Coastal Andhra jointly contributes above than 80 per cent in the total maize production in the state. Although, the growth of maize yield is higher in a resource poor district in Mahbubnagar, which accounts 33 percent followed by the Guntur district during 2000-01 to 2004-05. Furthermore, in these two districts the area under maize crop were expanded 7000 ha in every year from the past 5 years.
On the other hand, black gram, green gram, red gram and bengal gram (chickpea) are the principal pulse crops, whereas, 70 per cent of chickpea production were predominantly grown in Kurnool, Prakasam and Anantapur districts in the state. Moreover, it is emerging as a commercial crop in black cotton soil of Andhra Pradesh, particularly, because of higher returns and stability in productivity. Besides, a low risk crop and its suitable in a diverse dry land agroclimatic conditions.
Government schemes to promote agriculture in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh Annadatha Sukhibhava scheme is a newly launched scheme in the state.
The AP AS scheme is focused on providing financial benefits and welfare of the small and marginal farmers of the state. This scheme has been announced under the interim budget of the financial year 2019-2020. State government has announced a budget of Rs.5000 crores for this scheme. This scheme is basically an extension of PM Kissan Samman Yojna at the state level.
Andhra Pradesh Drought Mitigation Project (APDMP)
The project was approved for drought proofing and mitigating the distress of farmers of 5 chronic drought affected districts viz. Ananthapur, Chittoor, Kadapa, Kurnool and Prakasam. The programme commenced from 2017-18 with an outlay of Rs. 1100 Cr (Rs. 500 Cr. Being funded by IFAD).
Chandranna Rythu Kshetralu
(CRKS) on Farm demonstrations with latest technological interventions and by close monitoring of higher officials not only from the district but also from office of C&DA. The farmers will also be exposed to these interventions at different crop growth stages to realise the advantage of these interventions in enhancing the productivity. The achievable growth in terms of productivity per acre and also their performance in monitoring and controlling pests and other agronomic practices in each crop, will be fixed by the district JDAs keeping in view of the present status and definite possible increase in productivity. The concerned officers are personally responsible for implementation and achieving the targets.
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