Andhra Pradesh is exposed to cyclones, storm surges, floods and droughts. A moderate to severe intensity cyclone can be expected to make landfall every two to three years. About 44 percent of the state is vulnerable to tropical storms and related hazards. In India, the cyclones develop in the pre-monsoon (April to May) and post-monsoon seasons (October to December), but most of them tend to form in the month of November.
Two of the deadliest cyclones of this century, with fatalities of about 10,000 people in each case, took place in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh during October 1971 and November 1977 respectively. The super cyclone of Odisha in 1999 caused large scale damage to life and property.
Along the Andhra coast, the section between Nizampatnam and Machilipatnam is the most prone to storm surges. Vulnerability to storm surges is not uniform along Indian coasts.
Many drought prone areas adjacent to coastal districts in eastern maritime states are thus vulnerable to flash floods originated by the torrential rains induced by the cyclonic depression. In addition to cyclones and its related hazards, monsoon depressions over the north and central areas of the Bay of Bengal move until reaching north and central India, including portions of Andhra Pradesh, bringing heavy to very heavy rains and causing floods in the inland rivers between June and September.
Inadequate capacity of the rivers to contain within their banks the high flows brought down from the upper catchment areas, following heavy rainfall, leads to flooding. Central and coastal Andhra Pradesh spans mainly major river basins of Godavari, Krishna and minor river basins of Nagavali and Vamsadhara on the north and Pennar in the south. The Passage of storms/ cyclones in quick succession over a river basin invariably leads to severe floods. The problem is exacerbated by factors such as silting of the riverbeds, reduction of the carrying capacity of river channels, beds and banks leading to changes in river courses, obstructions to flow due to landslides, synchronization of floods in the main and tributary rivers and retardation due to tidal effects. The flood problems of deltaic regions are attributed to various causes like flatter slope of drains and back flow due to tides.
Some of the factors responsible for vulnerability of the state to cyclone are:
- Almost half of the storms in the Bay of Bengal become severe cyclones often accompanied by storm surges.
- Low lying areas along the coast are vulnerable to extensive flooding and deep inland sea water incursion.
- High concentration of population, infrastructure and economic activities along the coast.
- Lack of proper maintenance of the flood protection and irrigation systems, drains, embankments etc.,
The major impact of cyclones can be broadly categorised as below: Loss of lives, injuries and other health consequences such as epidemics, and post traumatic stress disorders (PTSD)
- Loss of habitat
- Loss of cattle and damage to crops and agricultural fields
- Damage to public utilities
- Disturbance and damage to the ecosystem
Drought Prone Districts: Chittoor, Kadapa, Anantapur& Kurnool, Mahabubnagar, Medak, Rnagareddy and Nalgonda 20 times drought in 40 years, 10 times drought in 20 years. 5 times drought in 10 years, 3 times drought in last 5 years Major Drought Years (1997, 2001, 2002 & 2004). 2002-03 has been the worst year of drought State GDP severely affected due to recurring drought
Andhra Pradesh with coastline of 1,030 K.Ms, is the second largest in the country next only to Gujarat State and the longest on the East Coast of India. The total coastal area spreads over 92,906 Sq. KMs. in nine coastal districts which have population of 2.87 Crores. On the morning of 26.12.2004 Tsunami tidal waves ranging from 2 to 6 metres high lashed the Andhra Pradesh coast. The major brunt of the tidal waves was along the coast of Nellore, Prakasam, Guntur, Krishna, East Godavari, and West Godavari Districts. Many people on the beaches as well as close to the coast were washed away and otherwise affected. The tidal waters entered the villages along the coast inundating large number of villages. In all 380 coastal villages with a population of 2,11,670 were affected by this calamity. Overall damages across the State was estimated to be Rs 317.16 Crores. The largest damages was in fisheries.
3 major earthquake events experienced in state: Vizianagaram (1917-5.5 RS), Ongole (1967-5.4 RS), Bhadrachalam (1969-5.7 RS)
EARTHQUAKE CONTINGENCY PLAN BASICALLY INCLUDES:
- Seismic activity in India;
- Earthquakes in Andhra Pradesh;
- Action Plan for earthquake in AP;
- Visuality of earthquake situation;
- Actions during earthquake;
- Recovery and rehabilitation after earthquake;
- Non-numerical advisory design; and Retrofitting to Earth Quake proof;
Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority (AP SDMA):-
Under the provisions of Disaster Management Act 2005, The Andhra Pradesh Disaster Management Rules 2007 were issued. As part of the rules, the Government of Andhra Pradesh has constituted Andhra Pradesh State Disaster Management Authority (AP SDMA). AP SDMA will be the chief nodal agency for disaster management at the state level. The APSDMA will have two distinct objectives.
- Development and updating of plans and strategies to handle any type of Disaster at various levels as Pre-Disaster efforts.
- Undertake projects for restoration and strengthening of infrastructure damaged by Disasters during Post-Disaster scenario.
District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA):-
Under the provisions of the Andhra Pradesh Disaster Management Rules 2007, besides setting up State Disaster Management Authority (SMDA), district level District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA) under the chairmanship of the District Collector is mandated. The composition of the DDMA consists of 1. The Collector and Magistrate of the district, who is the Chairperson, ex officio;
- Chairperson of the ZillaParishad of the district, as Co-Chairperson
- Superintendent of Police of the district, ex officio;
- Chief Executive Officer of the District Authority is the Joint Collector of the District, ex officio; who is also be Member and Convener
- Project Director, District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) of the district, ex officio
- Chief Executive Officer of the ZillaParishad of the district, ex officio; and
- District Medical and Health Officer of the district, ex officio;
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