Handicraft of Andra Pradesh
- Indian words for handicrafts are commonly hastkala, hastshilp, dastkari, karigari, all meaning handiwork, but they also refer to objects made with craftsmanship, i.e., specialised skills of the hands which are also artistic.
- The aesthetic content is an intrinsic part of such objects and means the object of utility has a value that goes beyond mere usage and is also pleasing to the eye.
- Crafts are closely related to concept of form, pattern, design, usage, and these lead to its total aesthetic quality.
Handicraft of Andra Pradesh
- Andra Pradesh is also one of important center for development of Handicraft and related products.
- Many Handicraft of Andra Pradesh works like Veena Manufacturing ,Durgi Stone Craft ,Budithi Brassware Banjara Needle Crafts ,Etikoppaka Toyes , Ponduru Khadi ,Bidri Craft, Dokra Metal Crafts, Nirmal Arts ,Bronze Castings, Kondapalli Toys, Lacquer Ware not only famous in the state but also out side the state
- Handicraft work provide economic work as well as serve as self employment aspect.
- The Handicrafts are, responsible for the revenue earning and the overall economy of the state as it provide self employment opportunities to poor and tribal people of Chattisgarh.
- It attract tourism from acrross the state.
- Handicraft of Andra Pradesh show culture, values and daily life nature.
- Till 2016 six Handicraft of Andra Pradesh and 4 Handlooms of Andra Pradesh got Geographical Indication Tag.
Handicraft of Andra Pradesh that recognised Geographical Indication (GI) Tags:
- Bobbili Veena
- Shadow Puppets Handicraft of Andra Pradesh
- Budithi Bell And Brass Craft
- Machilipatnam Kalamkari
- Kondapalli Bommalu
- Srikalahasthi Kalamkari
- Bobbili Veena is a traditional musical instrument which is also known as Saraswathi Veena.
- It has great importance and significance in the evolution of music and in particular carnatic music in our country.
- The Bobbili Veenas are made up of seasoned jackfruit woods and is an integral part of carnatic music.
- Vibrant designs and colors are used in order to give the veenas a designer look.
- Designs of flowers and leaves are inlayed on the main plastic sheet.
- The Veena is mostly made up of a single piece of jackfruit wood called as Ekandi Veena. In some cases, one joint near the dandi and alley is used.
- There are 4-5 varieties of Bobbili Veenas. They are :
- Ekandi- made out of single log wood,
- Kamalam – Lotus,
- Nemali – Peacock,
- Swarna Mandal – peacock shaped
- The Veenas weight around 18-20 kilos.
- The gift veenas, which are used as show piece or decorative items, measure 9-23 inch in total length and the base measurement is 3-4 inch in diameter. These veenas weigh around 250-300 gms.
Shadow Puppets Handicraft of Andra Pradesh
- This art goes back to more than 100 years.
- A rigorous spring-cleaning of the leather is undertaken, the stuff being soaked in a pit of limewater for 10-15 days. When the top portion becomes a bit smooth, it is scrapped clean with a knife. Then follows another round of water soaking – this time along with kadaka powder, a local vegetable dye for another ten days.
- The leather now assumes its natural colour of light brown and is ready for the designs to be drawn on it.
- Even on the lampshades, deities hold sway along with animals and floral designs. For drawing the contours, an outlining hand brush is used and thereafter the colours are filled in with vegetables dyes – brilliant reds, greens, whites, yellows, browns and orange ruling the roost.
- The creators of these puppets have discovered lampshades on leather to be the best medium to not only keep their traditions and art alive but also to serve as a source of their livelihood. Though the medium of expression has changed, the form continues to be the same.
- The beautiful and colourful spectrum of lampshades depicting episodes from folklore, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Krishna leela and a host of other characters continue to a narrative form.
Budithi Bell and Brass Handicraft of Andra Pradesh
- Specification of bindelu: Bindelu is made from brass metal, which is an alloy of copper and zinc.
- Descreption: This brass vessel is made particularly only in Budithi. It is a two piece vessel which is made by beating two different sheets of brass till the required shape is achieved. The two pieces are welded and then finished from the inside. The mouth of the vessel is made by welding a casted ring to the finished sphere. It is then finished by scraping out the outer surface of the vessel and polishing it, which imparts luster.
- Bell cast from bell metal is used in temples. It is one of the oldest and famous craft of Budithi. This product is normally in high demand through out the year. It is highly resonant which provides a longer lasting sound than general.
- Kondapalli toys are made from the wood of “Tella Poniki” (White Sander; botanical name Jiuotia Rotteri Fromis ) found in the forests of the geographical region of Kondapalli and Gangineni in the Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh and specific surrounding areas.
- The wood is nature’s gift to this geographical area. Kondapalli is famous for its wooden toys painted in vibrant hues obtained from natural dyes and colours. These dyes and colours are prepared from locally available material being extracts of plants like karakkai, moduga, etc.
- The theme of Kondapalli toys falls in three distinct categories.
- Animals and Birds
- Male and female figures depicting rural life
- Mythological figures
- “Machilipatam Kalamkari” visually identified by the all over floral twine/Persian designs which are block printed and produced in traditional laborious methods using natural vegetable dyes.
- Textile & Textile goods: bed and table cover and all other goods falling in class 24 ; clothing, headgear and all other goods falling in class 25; carpets, rugs, mats, and matting for covering floors and all other goods falling in class 27.
- Upholstery (Custom printed wall decorative, sofa and chair covers, durries, floor mats etc.)
- Furnishings/Made-ups (Custom printed bed covers, table covers, cushion covers, pillow covers, bolster covers, quilts and quilt covers, etc.)
- Fabrics (Printed Yardage fabrics for tailored curtains, men’s and women’s wear garments, accessories like bags, sarongs, stoles and scarves etc.)
- The Srikalahasti style of Kalamkari is the work which involves dyed hand-painting of a fabric and is produced in Srikalahasti of Chittoor district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
- Kalam in persian language means Pen is used for hand drawing and coloring.
- The usage of pen involves two types, one for drawing made from bamboo, the other for coloring.
- The coloring process involves usage of only natural dyes which are extracted from flowers and vegetables.
Some Important Handlooms that recognised GI tag form Andra Pradesh
Dharmavaram Handloom Pattu Sarees and Paavadas
- Dhamavaram is famous throughout the country for its elegant silk sarees. Its silk weaving industry has made the city renowned in India.
- Evidence of origin of Dharmavaram sarees can also be found in the roof wall paintings of Lepakshi temple near Hindupur.
- Mulberry silk in 2 ply for both warp and weft is used in weaving of Dharmavaram silk saree.
- Zari is extensively used in borders, pallow and body for ornamentation of the saree.
Mangalagiri Sarees and Fabrics
- Mangalagiri saree is a fine count saree normally woven with 80s combed cotton yarn for both warp and weft with extra warp design in the border.
- The specialty of the extra warp design is a combination of twill, rib and diamond weaves and these weaves are arranged side by side continuously without any gap.
- Zari is used for extra warp design in the borders.
Uppada Jamdani Sarees
- Uppada Jamdani Sari is a sari style woven in Uppada in East Godavari district in Andhra Pradesh.
- It is known for their light weight and reversible design i.e upon weaving the design appears on both the sides.
- Finest silk with pure zari is used as raw material to weave the saree. In these fabrics, designs intermingled with the basic plain ground weave are produced and therefore they look pretty and artistic.
- Jamdani weaving is locally called ‘Ani Butta’ weaving, “Ani” means “Shed”.
- This saree is woven in a small town Venkatagiri situated about 60 kms away from Nellore in Andhra Pradesh.
- It is woven with fine 100’s cotton yarn in both warp and weft. The saree is ornamented with zari in pallow and border.
- Jacquards are used to weave extra weft designs. Generally, soft and pastel colours are used in the sari.
- It is woven on a traditional fly shuttle pit loom. Specialty lies in sizing of its warp and weft yarns
Other Crafts of Andra Pradesh
- Ponduru Khadi : Khadi from Ponduru, a small village in Srikakulam is famous among khadi lovers of the entire country.
- Etikoppaka Toyes : Etikoppaka Village in Visajhapatnam distrcit is famous for age old tradition of wooden carving and artefacts.
- Banjara Needle Crafts The embroidery and mirror work, of the ‘Banjaras’ (Gypsies) on fabrics, have become the part of each person’s wardrobe in India. These people employ their dexterity in needle craft and create incredible designs on clothes. The work of art is famous for its intricate and colorful designs.
- Budithi Brassware, Budithi is a small village in Srikakulam district that is known for its amazing brassware. The items carved out of alloys range from conventional to contemporary ones. The special art articulates in the form of traditional tools and contemporary pots.
- Durgi Stone Craft The traditional skill of making sculptures is still practiced and taught at the School of Sculpture and Stone Carving situated here.
- Veena Manufacturing ‘Veena’ is the one amongst the oldest musical instruments of India. No composition of Carnatic music is complete without the cadence of this instrument. Bobbili town is highly praised for manufacturing Veena. The instruments made here are known for their comprehensiveness of tone. Moreover, they are available in different designs and patterns.
- Bidri Craft is serves as the pride of Andhra Pradesh. This unique art of silver inlay on metal has always been exciting people with its lure. The historical events disclose that this craft was brought by Iran migrants to India. The artisans practiced this art and brought it on the world wide panorama. In the present day, Bidri craft has been modified to produce cufflinks, name plates and many more things.
- Dokra Metal craft is quite prevalent in the tribal regions of Andhra Pradesh. In Adilabad district, the places like Chittalbori and Ushegaon are the main promoters of this art. The distinguished fact about Dokra craft is that each piece is dissimilar from the other. All the objects are created niftily by hand, boasting of individualistic touch. Dokra craft produces objects like figurines, horses, drummers, atypical spoons and tribal Gods.
- Nirmal Arts Nirmal town of Adilabad district is known for its wide range of handicrafts. The skilled craftsmen make the objects appear genuine with their brilliant use of colors and conventional techniques of creating objects. The colors are extracted from the natural dyes. The popular ‘Moghul’ miniatures are made on ‘Ponniki’, which is a soft white wood. It is further strengthened with coatings of tamarind seed paste, fine muslin and pipe clay.
- Lacquer Ware- This craft involves application of lacquer on wood. Lacquering could be done either by hand or machine.
The crafts and craftspeople of India are a deeply integrated part of folk and classical traditions and historical assimilations which together span many millennia. As articles made purely by hand for the daily use of both the common people in an agrarian economy and the urban elite, crafts reflect the cultural ethos of India. While the craftspeople have been cradled by the caste system, their skills were fostered by cultural and religious needs and the impetus provided by local, national and international trade. –JAYA JAITLY (Visvakarma’s Children)
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