Languages and Literature of Andhra Pradesh
- The “Telugu Literature” is one of the oldest “Dravidian Literatures” of India, which has a rich preserve of stories, dramas, epics and poems.
- The literature of Andhra Pradesh reflects the rich cultural and traditional history of the Dravidian state of India.
- The state is blessed with many significant luminaries in the field of literature who have contributed immensely to the Telugu language.
- The Telugu literature is a vast store house of literary products by eminent personalities from the field of literature.
- The people of Andhra Pradesh nurture a deep and intense emotion for their language which has found expression through the various literary products.
- The Literary gems of the Telugu literature have represented the “Dravidian” culture and tradition to the world.
- Many important literary figures of the state have been awarded with accolades from various quarters for their contribution towards the development of an important Indian language.
- The Telugu Literature reveals the traditional society of our country.
- One can get a glimpse of the chronological events of the mighty South India by going through the literary productions and work of the Telugu literature.
Telugu Languages and Literature of Andhra Pradesh
- Telugu literature traces back its roots to the second decade of eleventh century, though earlier literary works are few and far in between.
Work of Nannaya, Thikkana, Erraprgada (Kavitrayam trinity) in Mahabharata
- In starting time when a part of Mahabharata was rendered by Nannaya from Sanskrit into Telugu, these literatures begin.
- Nannaya, a poet laureate in the court of Rajarajanarendra of Rajahmahendravaram (now Rajahmundry) was measured to be the pioneer Telugu writer. Though he could finish only the first two and a portion of the third parva out of the 18 parvas of the epic, the translation attained a special implication.
- Thikkana (13th century) resumed and completed the rest but for a small gap after Nannaya.
- This gap of work was filled later by Erraprgada (14th century).
- Over three centuries, the Telugu Mahabharata is a liberal admixture of prose and verse and is a significant work of all time.
- The Mahabharata writers are known as kavitrayam trinity in early Telugu literature.
Palkuri Somanatha, Srinatha, Potana Telugu literature work
- Palkuri Somanatha (12th century) composed a Saivite treatise Basava puranam in Dwipada. Influenced by Sanskrit classics, Nannechoda wrote Kumara Sambhava.
- Though a he was latecomer in Telugu, Ramayana and Ranganatha Ramayana as well as Tikkana’s Uttara Rama Charitra merits mention.
- Srinatha (15th century) has been considered as the Byron of Andhra. Palnati veera charitra was his historical classic.
- Potana devoutly rendered the great Bhagavata Purana saying ‘palikedidi bhagavatamata palikinchedivadu Rama Bhadrundanta’ to stress that his motivation was divine.
- Even today Potana’s Bhagavata story woven around Lord Krishna, is recited by scholars and common people alike in Andhra. That was his popularity.
Telugu literature During the time of Krishna Devaraya
- ‘Desabhashalandu Telugu lessa’ was Krishna Devaraya’s well known scripta. Krishna Devaraya’s reign was hailed as the golden age of Telugu literature.
- It was said to be starting point of original Telugu writings in the form of prabandhas.
- Allasani Peddana’s Manucharitra,
- Poetess Molla’s Ramayana,
- Pingali Suranna’s Kalapoornodaya,
- Ramaraja Bhushana’s Vasu Charitra
These above are merited literary productions of this period.
- Sataka is yet another literary from original and unique in Telugu full of wisdom and mysticism. Vemana, hailed as poet of the people excelled in Sataka form.
Telugu literature during the time of Nayaka Kings
- The Southern School of Telugu Literature took roots under Nayaka Kings (17th century) in Tanjore.
- Yakshagana, folklore type of literary form emerged along with other desi forms sung by women on festive occasions.
Telugu literature during the time of 19th Century
- In the event political awakening in the latter half of nineteenth century, a new era began in Telugu literature with accent on prose writings.
- Gidugu Venkata Ramamurty and Gurazada Apparao (Kanyasulkam) revolutionized the literary field by establishing good prose traditions using spoken form of Telugu.
- In this period of renaissance as it is often called by experts, influenced by English literature and thought, Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848-1919) wrote Rajasekhara Charitra based on Vicar of Wakefield by Goldsmith, a well known English author.
- Avadhanam is yet another peculiar form of Telugu literary tradition. It is a form of literary acrobatics.
- Tirupati Sastry and Venkata Sastry known as janta kavulu or Tirupati pair (Tirupati Venkata Kavulu) mastered in this avadhanam.
- Asukavita or extempore versification is one more unique feature of Telugu literary tradition. All these literary forms rely strongly on certain rigid metrical standards.
- Against this background of traditional school in letters, a free school of lyricists with romantic vein and a strong ground of progressivism began to grow. Inspiration in life is the main stay of literary production according to the progressive school.
- Devulaplli Venkata Krishna Sastry belongs to transition from classical to modern school.
- By early 1940s Sri Sri (Srirangam Srinivasa Rao) Pattabhi, Narayanababu zealously led the progressive group and established themselves passing on their tradition in thought process to Arudra, Tilak Dasaradhi, and Narayanareddi; there are poets of merit who combine tradition with modernism.
- Viswanatha Satyanarayana, a veteran writer produced popular novels.
- Short story too was introduced during this period when Padmaraja’s Galivana won world recognition (1950).
Recent development Telugu literature development
- More recent trends in Telugu literary output turn to existentialism when a group of young men started Digambara school (1966). A
- dvent of cinema, in recent times, began effectively utilizing the services of variety of fiction writers, short story writers, poets, play-wrights for scenerio, song, dialogue writings.
- Non-fiction writing, once limited to text book production developed into writing of books on History, Science and other knowledge giving subjects and journalism.
- Mutnuri Krishna Rao and Kasinadhuni Nageswararao were the successful pioneers in Telugu journalism, when they founded Krishna patrika (1902) & Andhra Patrika in (1912). Vijnanachandrika Grandha mandali founded by Komarraju Venkata
- Lakshmanrao was the earliest to endeavor to disseminate knowledge on an organized scale.
- His indefatigable efforts resulted in the production of science books and a pair of encyclopedia volumes: Andhra Vijnana Sarvaswamu (1923) for bringing out subject wise encyclopedia Vijnana Sarvaswamu (16 volumes).
- Institutions like
- Andhra Sahitya Parishad, Kakinada,
- Andhra Saraswata Parishad, Hyderabd and
- Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Akademi
These are engaged in the promotion for the cause of literature on an organized scale.
- Navya Sahitya Parishad, Hyderabad, Andhra Viswa Sahiti, Hyderabad, Sahiti Samiti, Tirupati, Visakha Writers Association, Visakhapatnam, Sarasa, Madras etc are engaged in the promotion of the cause of local writers fraternity.
Telgu Languages and Literature of Andhra Pradesh
Classical Language Status of Telgu Languages and Literature of Andhra Pradesh
- In 2004, the Government of India declared that languages that met certain requirements could be accorded the status of a “Classical Language in India“.
- The following criteria were laid down to determine the eligibility of languages to be considered for classification as a”Classical Language”:
- High antiquity of its early texts/recorded history over a period of 1500-2000 years
- A body of ancient literature/texts, which is considered a valuable heritage by generations of speakers
- The literary tradition be original and not borrowed from another speech community
- The classical language and literature being distinct from modern, there may also be a discontinuity between the classical language and its later forms or its offshoots.
- Tamil became the first language in India to attain the status of classical language in 2004.
- In 2005, Sanskrit, which already had special status in Article 351 of the Constitution of India as the primary source language for the development of the official standard of Hindi, was also declared to be a classical language of India by Ministry of Culture.
- Kannada and Telugu were accorded the status in 2008, based on the recommendation of a committee of linguistic experts constituted by the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.
Post Independence Telgu Languages and Literature of Andhra Pradesh
- Telugu is one of the 22 languages with official constitutional status in India in schedule VIII.
- The Andhra Pradesh Official Language Act, 1966, declares Telugu the official language of the Andhra Pradesh that is currently divided into Telangana and Andhra Pradesh.
- Telugu also has official language status in the Yanam district of the union territory of Puducherry which governed through central Government.
- Telugu, along with Kannada, was declared as one of the classical languages of India in the year 2008 by Ministry of Culture.
- The fourth World Telugu Conference was organized in Tirupati in the last week of December 2012 and deliberated at length on issues and discussion related to Telugu language policy.
- Telugu is the third most spoken native language in India after Hindi and Bengali according 2011 census.
- Telugu is also the most spoken Dravidian Languages and Literature of Andhra Pradesh in the world according to Government of Andhra Pradesh.
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