Formation Of Andhra Pradesh
Activist Potti Sriramulu advocated inclusion of the Telugu-speaking areas of Rayalaseema and Coastal Andhra in an Andhra state. He conducted a hunger strike until Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru promised to form an Andhra state. On 19 October 1952, when Nehru’s promise had not been fulfilled, Sriramulu began fasting again at Maharshi Bulusu Sambamurthy’s Madras home. The Andhra Congress committee disapproved of Sriramulu’s hunger strike, but his action became widely known. He died shortly after midnight on 15 December 1952 at 126 Royapettah High Road, Mylapore, Madras, and the house has been preserved. During Sriramulu’s funeral procession, mourners praised his sacrifice. When the procession reached Mount Road, thousands of people joined it and raised banners hailing Sriramulu. Later, they began destroying public property. The news spread quickly, and seven people were killed by police gunfire in Anakapalle and Vijayawada. The unrest continued for several days. On 19 December 1952, Prime Minister Nehru announced the formation of a separate state for the Telugu-speaking people of the Madras Presidency. On 1 October 1953, eleven districts in the Telugu-speaking portion of Madras State (Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema) voted to become Andhra State, with Kurnool as their capital. Andhra Kesari Tanguturi Prakasam Pantulu became chief minister of the new Telugu state.
In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission convened to prepare for the creation of states along linguistic lines. Due to public demand, the commission recommended abolishing Hyderabad State and merging its Marathi-speaking region into Bombay State and its Kannada-speaking region into Mysore State.
The States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) discussed a merger of the Telugu-speaking Telangana region of Hyderabad State and Andhra State. According to Paragraph 374 of the report, “The creation of Vishalandhra is an ideal to which numerous individuals and public bodies, both in Andhra and Telangana, have been passionately attached over a long period of time, and unless there are strong reasons to the contrary, this sentiment is entitled to consideration”. About Telangana, paragraph 378 reads: “One of the principal causes of opposition of Vishalandhra also seems to be the apprehension felt by the educationally backward people of Telangana that they may be swamped and exploited by the more advanced people of the coastal areas”. In its analysis, the SRC opposed an immediate merger. Paragraph 386 reads, “After taking all these factors into consideration we have come to the conclusion that it will be in the interests of Andhra as well as Telangana, if for the present, the Telangana area is to constitute into a separate State, which may be known as the Hyderabad State with provision for its unification with Andhra after the general elections likely to be held in or about 1961 if by a two thirds majority the legislature of the residuary Hyderabad State expresses itself in favor of such unification”. The central government, led by Nehru, merged Andhra State and Telangana to form Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956 after ensuring safeguards to Telangana in the form of a gentleman’s agreement.
On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously approved a resolution recommending the formation of a Telangana state. In February 2014, a bill was placed before Parliament. The Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 was passed, allowing the formation of a Telangana state of ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh. The bill received the assent of the president, and was published in The Gazette of India on 1 March. The state of Telangana was officially formed on 2 June 2014.
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