The dawn of Telangana as the 29th State of the Republic of India on 02-06-2014 is a matter of ecstasy to the entire people of the region. The formation is the fruition of decades of struggle, comprising multiple mode for separate identity and existence, involving all sections of the society in Telangana. Though Telugu is the major language of the land, it is equally a cordial home for several tongues. History narrates how the protagonists of Telugu had to endeavour in every conceivable method to ensure survival of the language. Many organizations worked in this direction. Erstwhile Andhra Saraswatha Parishath was the pioneering body dedicated to the cause. Today, the Parishath is reckoned as one of the principal instruments for the prosperity of Telugu language, literature, arts and culture in Telangana. Consequent on the formation of Telangana, the Parishath is renamed as “” in a meeting of the General Body of the Parishath in consonance with the concerted voice of the people of Telangana and the unanimous resolution came into force with effect from 21st August, 2015. A Brief review of its origin and growth does serve as a source of inspiration to the present and future generations and prompt them to continue the legacy with fervour.
There was a period in the past when Telugu, the second largest spoken language in India, enjoyed royal patronage in the areas coming under the erstwhile Hyderabad State. Special mention shall be made of the magnificence fillip given to Telugu by Qutubshahi Rulers. Several classics were produced and the Telugu literature was enriched. But change of successive dynasties brought misfortune to Telugu. The Rulers of Asafjahi dynasty were not benefactors of Telugu. Urdu was the court language and other languages lost their significance. The administrative authorities of Nizam were not favourably disposed towards the Telugu language. They resorted to muffle the language. It was indeed a paradox that on one occasion some individuals from a sister language, probably under the influence of the bureacracy, chose to humiliate Telugus and their language. This ignited the sparks of dignity and honour among Telugu people of Telangana and paved the way for a series of endeavours and movements to restablish the glory of Telugu language. A movement was launched then. Institutions were founded. Research centres were set up. And there were other similar measures in the direction, unmindful of the risks involved. Some ardent protagonists of Telugu were not contented with these steps. They were keen on the formation of a special organization for the propagation and preservation of Telugu language, literature, arts and culture. A meeting of prominent persons interested in the subject was convened. The venue was the Library Hall of Reddy Hostel, Hyderabad. Sri Lokanandi Sankaranarayana Rao presided over the meeting. Sri Boorgula Ranganadha Rao and Sri Bhaskarabhatla Krishna Rao were the convenors. The participants deliberated on various aspects of the issue. It was here that the pioneering institution, the pride of Telugus of Telangana, was brought into being on 26-5- 1943 under the name of ‘Nizam Rashtra Andhra Saraswatha Parishath’.
It will be an exciting experience to recollect the names of eleven members of the sub-committee elected to draft rules and regulations for the Parishath. They were – Sri Madapati Hanumantha Rao, Sri Bukkapatnam Ramanujachari, Sri Suravaram Pratapa Reddy, Sri Lokanandi Sankaranarayana Rao, Dr. Boorgula Ramakrishna Rao, Sri Chidirematham Veerabhadra Sarma, Sri Adiraju Veerabhadra Rao, Sri Nandagiri Venkata Rao, Sri Kodati Narayana Rao, Sri Gadiyaram Ramakrishna Sarma and Sri Bhaskarabhatla Krishna Rao. Office of the ‘Golconda Patrika’ was the venue for the Parishath in the initial stages. Later, it was shifted to Hanumantekdi area. In due course of time, horizons of its activities were expanded to other States and even other countries. With a view to giving a wider connotation, the expression ‘Nizam State’ was dropped from the name of the Parishath.
Many stalwarts were responsible for the rapid progress of the parishath in terms of ramification of its activities and areas of its operation. Their list is long and their contribution will ever be remembered with gratitude. The association of Dr. Devulapalli Ramanuja Rao with the Parishath was indeed a period of speedy strides. He worked with unparalleled devotion and dedication. He thoughtfully chose eminent poet, educationist and administrator Jnanpith Awardee Dr. C. Narayana Reddy to wield the reins of the Parishath as its next President. The institution witnessed tremendous developments in all aspects under the guidance of Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. He devised a variety of literary and cultural programmes to project the glory of Telangana with all the spendour of its language, literature, arts and culture.
Vande mataram movement
Vande Mataram Movement was the most significant movement in the history of Hyderabad freedom struggle. The Nizam Government has forbidden the singing of Vande Matram all over the state including the educational Institutions and Hostels, and it became a symbol of nationalist agitation. It was used for rousing the nationalistic sprit among the People . The Nationalists of Hyderabad state belonging to Araya Samaj, Hindu Maha Sabha, Praja Mandal, Nijam Karnataka Parishath, Andhra Maha Sabha, and Marati Maha Mandala the civil liberties and student union forget their socio-political labels to launch a united struggle called Vande Mataram in 1938 to fight for the basic civil and political rights of the people .
The origin of this movement in Hyderabad state may be traced in the decision of Nizam Government to conduct special (Religious Discourse) classes viz, Dinayat in all Educational Institutions exclusively for Muslim students. The Non Muslim students were not permitted to sit in the class room during Dinyat. The Muslim Pandits and Kazis were appointed to teach the gospel of the Quran to Muslims. Muslim students were offering prayers (Namaz) in educational institutions and in University Hostels. Besides at the commencement of the classes the students including Hindus and Muslims of Tahatania (Primary School) Phokaniya (High School) were to sing “Do Al Men Riya Sabe” which meant “Let Nizam Live Long”, the prayer was in Persian mixed with Urdu language.
The Students of Osmaniya University was very much influenced by the magnetic personality of Swami Ramand Tirth, the founder of Hyderabad state Congress. His thought provoking lectures delivered on Makhenzi Report and on the evolution of Democracy on the day of Janmastami at Osmaniya University in 1936. It had enkindled the minds of Youth a rousing spirit to fight against the fanatic forces and autocratic rule of Nizam. Therefore the Hindu students sought the permission of the Nizam government to sing Vande Mataram in Schools and Colleges. But Nizam Government disapproves the permission and forbid the singing of Vande Mataram Prayer.
The Movement started as a non-party, Hindu student rose against the banning of Vande Mataram song in Aurangabad Intermediate College Hostel on 16th November 1938 and later spread to other parts of the state. When the song was banned in the prayer halls of Osmania University Hostels at Hyderabad on 23rd November 1938, it gathered momentum. The movement was a sort of revolt against the increasing communal influence partly of the Nizam’s Government and of the Itthad-Ul0Musalmeen party, and partly against the growing influence of the Indian Muslim League on the University campus 6 . This was a unique agitation which gave training to the students who later became leaders in various walks of life.
The students of Government intermediate college, Aurangabad objected to sing a song of loyalty of the Asafia dynasty of Hyderabad state and they decided to sing the national song Vande Mataram in their College and Hostels in November, 1938. But the song was banned on 16th November, 1938 by the University authorities both in the college and Hostels. The Hindu students encouraged by G.M.Shroff, a staff member of the Aurangabad College, protested against the ban on the song .
Osmaniya University students sharply reacted to the attitude of the college authorities in Aurangabad and the fall out could be seen in the hostels. There were two prayer halls in Osmaniya University Hostels since the beginning of 1938 one for the Muslims and the other for the Hindus. The Muslim prayer hall was free from any restrictions, whereas the songs sung in the Hindu Prayer hall were subjected to scrutiny by the Government as it suspected that songs like Vande Mataram had political overtones, apart from hurting non-Hindus. The University officials banned the singing of the Vande Mataram song in the prayer hall on 28th Novemeber 1938. On the same day, students submitted a memorandum to the Vice Chancellor requesting the revocation of the bane order. Contrary to the expectations of the students the Vice Chancellor reiterated the earlier ban order stating that it was issued by the Executive council, the supreme Executive body in the state.
In the evening of 28th November, when the day song was banned, the students went to the prayer hall and sang the song. When students were coming out of the prayer hall of B hostel, the warden and other officials of the University authorities took the signatures of the students who had violated the University order. On 29th November the students were literally kept under house arrest, when they were asked not to leave the hostels and not to attend the college until further orders. When the students were asked to leave the hostels on the night of 29th November 1938 , they formed an Action committee of the Vande Mataram strikers with K. Achyut Reddy as President, P.G.Puranik, Narsing Prasad Jaiswal, D.M.Deshmuk and few others members take necessary action depending on the situation. The committee decided to continue the movements till their demands were met .
Next day the students started agitation against the Nizam Government. Jagannatha Rao Chandriki, Shivamurthy swami, Narayan Kanihal, V.P.Devalgoankar, Sardar Sharagouda Inamadar, Jayateerth Rajpurohit all students of Hyderabad Karnataka and so many from Udgir, Aurangabad, Mahboob Nagar participated in Vande Mataram movement. The Middle School students of Koppal viz. Itigi Virupakshaiah, Kumaraiah, Andanappa Kollur, Veerappa Menasinkai and Bangarsetty offered Satyagraha and courted arrest. There was no single Hindu student left in Gulbarga College10. Boycott of the colleges by students continued in many places and even while on arrest, the student sung Vande Matram spiritedly.
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