Construction Materials and clays

Construction Materials and clays Construction material is any material used for construction purpose such as materials for house building. Wood, cement, aggregates, metals, bricks, concrete, clay are the most common type of building material used in construction. The choice of these are based on their cost effectiveness for building projects. Many naturally occurring substances, such … Read more


Cloudiness Cloud cover (also known as cloudiness, cloudage, or cloud amount) refers to the fraction of the sky obscured by clouds when observed from a particular location. Okta is the usual unit of measurement of the cloud cover. The cloud cover is correlated to the sunshine duration as the least cloudy locales are the sunniest … Read more

Remedial measures for Soil erosion and Coastal erosion

Remedial measures for Soil erosion and Coastal erosion Soil erosion Using trees to control erosion Trees are often considered to be the universal answer to control soil erosion. Tree roots help prevent landslides on steep slopes and stream bank erosion but they don’t stop erosion on moderately sloping hillslopes.  In forests, the soil surface is … Read more

Wildlife protection act 1972

Wildlife protection act 1972 Introduction Wildlife Protection Act 1972 was passed on August 21, 1972, but was later implemented on September 9, 1972. This act prohibits the capturing, killing, poisoning or trapping of wild animals It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Objectives Prohibition of hunting Protection and … Read more

Tissue culture methods and applications

Tissue culture methods and applications Tissue culture refers to a method in which fragments of a tissue (plant or animal tissue) are introduced into a new, artificial environment, where they continue to function or grow. While fragments of a tissue are often used, it is important to note that entire organs are also used for … Read more

Immunodiagnosis techniques

Immunodiagnosis techniques Immunodiagnostics is a diagnostic methodology that uses an antigen-antibody reaction as their primary means of detection. The concept of using immunology as a diagnostic tool was introduced in 1960 as a test for serum insulin. A second test was developed in 1970 as a test for thyroxine in the 1970s. It is well-suited … Read more

Transgenic animals

Transgenic animals Transgenic animals are animals that have been cloned. The medical and biotechnological uses of animal cloning are almost innumerable, as many diseases have been eradicated thanks to the production of these transgenic animals. Transgenic animals development Since the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953, molecular biology … Read more

National Biological Diversity Act 2002

National Biological Diversity Act was enacted in 2002 for giving effect to the provisions of the CBD. Objective of this act is to regulate the access to genetic resources and protection of biodiversity. This act provides for establishment of statutory bodies such as National Biodiversity Authority, State Biodiversity Boards, National and State Biodiversity Funds, Biodiversity … Read more

Forest conservation Act

In order to check rapid deforestation due to forestlands being released by state governments for agriculture, industry and other development projects (allowed under the Indian Forest Act) the federal government enacted the Forest Conservation Act in 1980 with an amendment in 1988. The Act made the prior approval of the federal government necessary for de-reservation … Read more

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