Panchayat Financing And Devolution

 Panchayat: Financing, Resource mobilization and devolution Sources of Funds The Amendments left important matters such as implementation, service delivery (including local capacity building) and transfer of responsibilities and powers to rural local bodies at the discretion of the state legislatures. Consequently, while expenditure responsibilities of local bodies are extensively enhanced, there is no law … Read more

Non Banking Financial Institutions

 Non-banking financial institutions and their reforms in them since 1990s A Non Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a company registered under the Companies Act, 1956 of India, engaged in the business of loans and advances, acquisition of shares, stock, bonds hire-purchase insurance business or chit business but does not include any institution whose principal … Read more

Pattern Of Revenue Expenditure

 In India, government expenditure – as per the provision in the Constitution – is divided into revenue expenditure and capital expenditure. However, the adoption of economic planning shifted emphasize on the division of expenditure into Plan and Non-Plan. The share of Non-Plan expenditure has remained close to 70% and that of Plan at 30% … Read more

Regional Imbalances And Income Inequalitiies In India

Steps taken by the Government to reduce it. Regional imbalance is the disparity in economic and social development of two regions. One region/city/area is stronger than another region/city/area. Regions develop when investments are made to set up industries, service sectors, educational institutions, health care facilities etc. Income inequality is the unequal distribution of household or individual income across the various participants … Read more

State Finances And Local Finances

 State finances The constitution (73rd and 74th) Amendment Acts, 1992 and Article 280 (3) (c) have altered the erstwhile fiscal devolution system and framework between the states and local governments. Under the new fiscal devolution system every state government is required to constitute, once in five years, a Finance Commission under articles 243 (I) … Read more

Structural Changes In The Indian Economy

 Change in composition of domestic product or change in national income by industry of origin refers to change in relative significance (share) of different sectors of the economy. Generally, an economy is divided into three major sectors viz. primary, secondary and tertiary sectors. Primary sector includes agricultural and allied activities, secondary sector includes manufacturing … Read more

Administered Prices

ADMINISTERED PRICES INCLUDING MSP AND PROCUREMENT PRICES Historical context The emergence of agricultural Price Policy in India was in the backdrop of food scarcity and price fluctuations provoked by drought, floods and international prices for exports and imports. This policy in general was directed towards ensuring reasonable food prices for consumers by providing food grains … Read more

Foreign Exchange

   is the exchange of one currency for another or the conversion of one currency into another currency. also refers to the global market where currencies are traded virtually around the clock. transactions encompass everything from the conversion of currencies by a traveler at an airport kiosk to billion-dollar payments made by corporations, financial … Read more

Sectoral Composition With Respect To Contribution To Gross Domestic Product

 (GDP) and Employment Historically, India has classified and tracked its economy and GDP in three sectors: agriculture, industry and services. Agriculture includes crops, horticulture, milk and animal husbandry, aquaculture, fishing, sericulture, aviculture, forestry and related activities. Industry includes various manufacturing sub-sectors. India's definition of services sector includes its construction, retail, software, IT, communications, hospitality, … Read more

Food Security Scheme

 After the rural job guarantee programme, the government is now focusing on an ambitious National Food Security Act aimed at drawing more people into the food security net. It has made a strong pitch for providing 35 kg of cereal at Rs 3 per kg every month to the poor of this country. The … Read more

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