. COVID-19 prompted a wide range of responses from governments around the world. The Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT), provides a systematic way to track government responses to COVID-19 across countries. Common lockdowns used included school closings, travel restrictions, bans on public gatherings, emergency investments in healthcare facilities, new forms of social welfare provision, contact tracing, wide scale testing and other interventions to contain the spread of the virus, augment health systems, and manage the economic consequences of these actions. However, government policy responses have varied substantially— both across countries, and often within countries—in the measures that they have adopted and how quickly they have adopted them.
Survey has analyzed if the policy response across countries was effective in controlling the spread of the pandemic and associated fatalities across countries. To assess this, the counterfactual is estimated, i.e., what would have been the natural caseload and associated fatalities purely based on the population, population density and the demographics of the population. Given the network effects that affect the spread of the pandemic, the size of the population, population density as well as the demographics, especially the proportion of the elderly population, affect the caseload across countries. Moreover, the number of tests conducted also impact the caseload.
Although all age groups are at risk of contracting COVID-19, older people face significant risk of developing severe illness if they contract the disease due to physiological changes that come with ageing and potential underlying health conditions. Though India has a young population with only around 10 per cent share of people above 60 years of age, the population of people above 60 years of age is significantly higher in India than in any of the 30 countries that account for 86 per cent of the cases.
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