vocational and technical education in india
Technical and Vocational Education plays a vital role in human resource development of the country by creating skilled manpower, enhancing industrial productivity and improving the quality of life. The term Technical Education and Vocational Training are sometimes used synonymously. However, as per present practice, the term TE refers to post secondary courses of study and practical training aimed at preparation of technicians to work as supervisory staff. The term VT refers to lower level education and training for the population of skiled or semi-skilled workers in various trades and it does not enhance their level with respect to general education.
The main agencies involved in policy formulation and its implementation include:
- National Skills Development Council
- Ministry of Human Resource Development
- Ministry of Labour and Employment , Directorate General of Employment and Training (for Vocational Training)
Technical institutions in india
Technical Education is instrumental in making the remarkable contribution to economic growth of the Developing Countries by way of suitable manpower production according to the needs of the Industry, Society and the Global World as a whole. To produce fully skilled manpower/knowledgeable technocrats in the present era of science and technology is the need of the hour. Polytechnic education has responded to the challenges of industrialization for self-reliance.
Technical Education covers courses and programmes in engineering, technology, management, architecture, town planning, pharmacy and applied arts & crafts, hotel management and catering technology. India’s general, technical and managerial capabilities are on par with the best of the world countries. While the youth population is fast shrinking with higher dependency ratios in the developed world, India is blessed with the population of about 70 percent below the age of 35 years. Youths are the most vibrant and dynamic segment as well as potentially most valuable human resource. However, despite phenomenal capabilities, India is seriously handicapped with a very weak and narrow knowledge base, with 12.3% gross enrolment ratio, as compared to 21% in China, 54.6% in developed countries and the world average of 23.2% . There is need to convert the available huge human resource potential into a reality by expanding opportunities for youngsters and that too on a massive scale and in diverse fields such as science, technology, engineering, architecture, management etc. to reap the demographic dividends. This is possible only if we seriously undertake rapid reforms in the higher and technical education sector.
Polytechnic education in India contributes significantly to its economic development. Most of the polytechnics in the country offer three year generalized diploma courses in conventional disciplines such as Civil, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering. During the last two decades many polytechnics started offering courses in other disciplines such as Electronics, Computer Science, Medical Lab technology, Hospital Engineering, Architectural Assistantship etc. In addition, many single technology institutions are also offering diploma programmes in areas like Leather Technology, Sugar Technology, and Printing Technology etc. Many diploma programmes are also being offered exclusively for women in Women’s Polytechnics such as in Garment Technology, Beauty Culture and Textile Design. Polytechnics are meant to provide skills after class X and the duration of diploma programmes is 3 years, which means, the trainee becomes employable at the age of 19 years. Polytechnics are also offering post diploma and advanced diploma programmes of 1- 2 years duration in different specializations.
The aim of the polytechnic education is to create a pool of skill based manpower to support shop floor and field operations as a middle level link between technicians and engineers. The pass-outs of Diploma level Institutions in Engineering & Technology play an important role in managing shop-floor operations. It is further an established fact that small & medium Industry prefer to employ Diploma Holders because of their special skills in reading and interpreting drawings, estimating, costing & billing, supervision, measurement, testing, repair, maintenance etc.
industrial training institute courses
The directorate general of employment and training (DGE&T) in the ministry of labour, government of India initiated CTS in 1950 by establishing about 50 ITIs for imparting skills in various vocational trades to meet the skilled manpower requirements for technology and industrial growth of the country.
Vocational Training refers to certificate level crafts training and is open to students whose leave school after completing anywhere from grades VIII – XII. Programme administered under the Craftsman Training Scheme (CTS) are operated by Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) and Industrial Training Centres (ITCs). This scheme falls within the purview of Directorate General Employment and aining (DGET), under the Ministry of Labour and Emplyment.
- Training is provided in 32 engineering and 22 non-engineering trades approved by the National Council for raining in Vocational Trades to people aged 15-25 years.
- There are 7500 ITIs/ITCs with an overall capacity of 75000 over all places in the country.
- • Electrician, Plumber, Auto-technician, Painters, Packages, Multipurpose Technicians, Masons, Dairy Assistants, etc.
- The duration of the training programme varies from 1-2 years or small duration of 2 – 3 months.
- The resource persons for the programme may be drawn from rural engineering departments of state governments, faculty of engineering colleges/polytechnics/ITIs and others. The trainees may also be provided one or two week’s orientation program in relevant industries.
National policy on skill development
A National Policy on Skill Development has been formulated by the Ministry of Labour & Employment. The objective is to create a workforce empowered with improved skills, knowledge and internationally recognized qualifications to gain access to decent employment and ensure India’s competitiveness in the dynamic Global Labour market. It aims at increase in productivity of workforce both in the organized and the unorganized sectors, seeking increased participation of youth, women, disabled and other disadvantaged sections and to synergize efforts of various sectors and reform the present system.
National Skill Development Initiative will empower all individuals through improved skills, knowledge, nationally and internationally recognised qualifications to gain access to decent employment and ensure India’s competitiveness in the global market.
VOCATIONAL COURSES COVERED IN DIFFERENT AREAS UNDER APPRENTICES ACT 1961
Poultry Production, Fisheries/Fish Processing, Dairying, Sericulture, Apiculture, Floriculture, Plant Protection, Agricultural Chemicals, Inland Fisheries, Plantation Crops and Management, Seed Production Technology, Swine Production, Vegetable Seed production, Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Industry, Sheep and Goat Husbandry, Repair and Maintenance of Power Driven Farm Machinery, Veterinary Pharmacist-cum-Artificial Insemination Assistant, Agro Based Food Industry (Animal based), Agro Based Food Industry (Crop based), Agro Based Food Industry (Feed based), Post Harvest Technology, Fish Seed Production, Fishing Technology, Horticulture, Soil Conservation, Crop Cultivation/ Production.
Business and Commerce
Banking, Marketing and Salesmanship, Office Secretaryship/ Stenography, Co-operation, Export-Import Practices and Documentation, Insurance, Purchasing and Storekeeping, Taxation Practices/ Taxation laws/ Tax Assistant, Industrial Management, Receptionist, Basic Financial Services, Office Management, Tourism and Travel, Accountancy and Auditing.
Engineering and Technology
Civil Construction/Maintenance, Mechanical Servicing, Audio Visual Technician, Maintenance and Repair of Electrical Domestic Appliances, Building and Road Construction, Building Maintenance, Ceramic Technology, Computer Technique, Rural Engineering Technology, Materials Management Technology, Rubber Technology, Structure and Fabrication Technology, Sugar Technology, Tanaries .
Health and Paramedical
Medical Laboratory/ Technology Assistant, Health Worker, Nursing, Health Sanitary Inspector Hospital Documentation, Hospital Housekeeping, Ophthalmic Technology, X-ray Technician, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, Multi-rehabilitation Worker, Bio Medical Equipment and Technician, Dental Hygienist, Dental Technician, Multi Purpose Health Worker, Pharmacist, ECG and Audiometric Technician, Nutrition and Dietetics, Auxiliary Nurse and Mid Wives, Primary Health Worker.
Food Preservation, Child Care and Nutrition, Catering and Restaurant Management, Pre-school and Crèche Management, Textile Designing, Interior Design, Commercial Garment Designing and Making, Clothing for the Family, Health Care and Beauty Culture, Bleaching Dyeing and Fabric Painting, Knitting Technology, Institutional House Keeping .
Humanities Science and Education
Library and Information Science, Instrumental Music (Percussion Tabla), Classical Dance (Kathak), Indian Music (Hindustani Vocal Music), Photography, Commercial Art, Physical Education, Bharat Natyam, Cotton Classifier.
Major challenges in front of india’s skill development
India enjoys a demographic dividend where more than 60 percent of its population is in the working age group. The youth bulge presents an opportunity for India to enhance its growth and also supply skilled manpower to the rest of the world. According to the World Bank Report, this is because India’s working age population will be more than the dependent population for at least three decades till 2040. The National Higher Education Commission, in its report estimated that the average age of population in India by 2020 would be 29 years as against 40 years in USA, 46 years in Europe and 47 years in Japan. It is also estimated that during the next 20 years, the labour force in the industrial world is expected to decline by 4%, while in India it will increase by 32%.
However, the country is facing a paradoxical situation where on the one hand young men and women entering the labour market are looking for jobs; on the other hand industries are complaining of unavailability of appropriately skilled manpower. This paradox reflects the criticality of skill development to enhance the employability of the growing young population and also to gear-up the economy to realise the target of faster and inclusive growth. However, keeping in view the heterogeneity of the labour market and also preponderance of the unorganised sector; designing a model which benefits the key players of the ecosystem: employer, training providers, trainee and the government is a challenging task.
It is known that 93% of the total labour force is in the unorganised sector. Thus, the major challenge of skill development initiatives is also to address the needs of a vast population by providing them skills which would make them employable and enable them to secure decent work leading to improvement in the quality of their life.
The National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015 supersedes the policy of 2009. This primarily aims at meeting the challenge of skilling at scale with speed, standards (quality) and sustainability. According to India Labour Report 2012, it is estimated that 12.8 million new persons join the labour market annually vis-à-vis the current capacity of the skill development which is 3.1 million in our country.
It is estimated that incremental HR requirement for skill development in the period 2012 to 2022 for the whole country is 12.03 crore. Hence there is pressing need to expand the infrastructure for skill development many fold to cater to the target which is more than four times the present capacity. As mid- term strategy, 104.62 million fresh entrants to the labour force between 2015 to 2022 would be required to be skilled/provided vocational education. At present 21 Ministries/Departments of Government of India are engaged in skill development programme.
There are several challenges which have been identified in skill development of the Indian Youth. For instance increasing the capacity of the existing system to ensure equitable access for all and at the same time maintaining their quality and relevance is a big challenge. This involves strong and effective linkages between the industry and the trainer institute with adequate provisions for constant knowledge upgrading of the trainers. Creating effective convergence between school education and the governmental efforts in the area of skill development also need to be reworked. All this has to be in consonance with Labour Market Information System. Other challenges include creation of institutional mechanism for research development, quality assurance, examination, certification, affiliation and accreditation. Needless to say that efforts should be on to make the skill development attractive and productive to motivate the youth to aspire for it.
Addressing the above challenges, government has taken some concrete steps which include dovetailing and rationalization of the Central Government Schemes on Skill Development in order to achieve maximum convergence and making skill development an integral part of all Government of India schemes which has ensured that all government schemes now has the component which takes care of skill development as per the programme’s requirement. Skill gap studies conducted by NSDC for 21 high growth sectors of the country will project he human resource requirement in those sectors by 2022.
Monitoring and evaluation is the spine of any development plan. Since National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship has been structured as an outcome oriented policy, it has been decided to set up a Policy Implementation Unit (PIU) for reviewing the implementation and progress of the various initiatives and undertaking corrective measures under this policy. For bringing improvements in the scheme through the feedback, provision has also been made to facilitate constant consultation with the stakeholder. To ensure that the desired results are achieved on this account, it is necessary that along with monitoring, a quick evaluation of the Programme is undertaken at the earliest possible. Based on evaluation findings, we would be able to take effective measures and breach all the gaps in the implementation process.
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