. In a bid to curb carbon emissions and global warming, Kyoto Protocol was signed among various countries and it entered into force in 2005 which marked the beginning of its first commitment period till 2012 (second commitment period was agreed from 2013-20). It was an extension of UNFCCC and a concrete plan to bring GHG emission down in a legally binding manner.
Countries were divide into three groups – Annex-1 countries (the Industrialized economies and economies in transition) and Annex-2 (the developed countries excluding economies in transition which will actually pay to developing countries for their costs incurred in new projects under CDM and they are actually a subset of Annex 1 countries) and other developing countries or non-Annex countries. Annex- 2 countries have binding targets under Kyoto to cut carbon emissions under principle of common, but differentiated/historic responsibilities. It set legally binding targets for the Annex-2 countries (37 of them including individual countries of EU) to reduce their GHG levels to an average of 5.3% of 1990 level during a seven year commitment period of 2005-12. USA and Australia didn’t sign it.
Two major instruments of this protocol were :
Global Environment Facility
It was established with the help of World Bank, UND and UNEP to transfer environmentally friendly technologies from developed countries to developing countries for checking the greenhouse gases emissions.
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of UN
It has been started in the aftermath of Kyoto protocol under which Carbon Credits can be traded as per Marrakesh Accord. The protocol came into effect in 2005 on the basis of Common, but Differentiated Responsibilities. The principle of CBDR enshrined in UNFCCC article 4(7) was formally operationalised through Kyoto Protocol.
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