. The excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro and several other sites of the Indus Valley Civilisation revealed the existence of a very modern urban civilisation with expert town planning and engineering skills.
Main features of Harappan remains are:
- The settlements could be traced as far back as third millennium BC.
- Some important settlements were excavated on the banks of the river Indus particularly at the bends that provided water, easy means of transportation of produce and other goods and also some protection by way of natural barriers of the river .
- All the sites consisted of walled cities which provided security to the people.
- The cities had a rectangular grid pattern of layout with roads that cut each other at right angles.
- The Indus Valley people used standardised burnt mud-bricks as building material.
- There is evidence of building of big dimensions which perhaps were public buildings, administrative or business centres, pillared halls and courtyards, There is no evidence of temples.
- Public buildings include granaries which were used to store grains which give an idea of an organised collection and distribution system.
- Along with large public buildings, there is evidence of small one roomed constructions that appear to be working peoples quarters.
- The Harappan people were great engineers as is evident from the public bath that was discovered at Mohenjodaro. The ‘Great Bath’ as it is called, is still functional and there is no leakage or cracks in the construction. The existence of what appears to be a public bathing place shows the importance of ritualistic bathing and cleanliness in this culture. It is significant that most of the houses had private wells and bathrooms.
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