- Ahmadiya Movement: This movement was founded by MirzaGhulam Ahmed in 1889. It was based on liberal principles. It described itself as the standard bearer of Mohamedan Renaissance, and based itself, like BrahmoSamaj, on the principle of Universal religion of all humanity, opposing jihad. The movement spread western liberal education among the Indian Muslims. However, the Ahmadiya Movement, like Baha’sm which flourished in the west Asian Countries, suffered from mysticism.
- Wahabi Movement: Shah Walliullah inspired this essentially revivalist response to western influences and the degeneration which had set in among Indian Muslims. He was the first Indian Muslims leader of the 18th century to organize Muslims around the two fold ideals of this movement.
- The desirability of harmony among the four schools of Muslims jurisprudence which had divided the Indian Muslims
- The recognition of the role of individual conscience in religion where conflicting interpretation were derived from the Quran and the Hadis
The teachings of Walliullah were further popularized by Shah Abdul Aziz and Syed Ahmed Barelvi who also gave them a political perspective. India was considered to be dar-ul-Harb(land of kafirs) and it needed to be converted to dar-ul-Islam(land of Islam).
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