Andhara Pradesh Scheduled Tribes

 

In Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Tribe population is 5.3% of total population of State. The highest ST population is in vishakapatnam District followed by vizianagram, Nellore and Srikakulam(according to %) whereas lowest is in Kurnool District.

Sex Ratio among Scheduled Tribes of AP is 1009. Higest in Viziangaram and lowest in Anantpur. Major Tribes of Andhra Pradesh are

Gadaba Tribe

The Gadaba are distributed in the Agency Area of Visakhapatnam, Vizanagaram and Srikakulam districts and in certain agency tracts of Koraput and Ganjam districts of Orissa. This tribe owes its name to the fact that its ancestors emigrated from the banks of the Gadabari (Godavari) river, and settled at Nandapur, the former capital of the Rajas of Jeypore. Some evidence say that they can be called Kadava, as in Tamil, because of their prominent earrings – Kadu in Tamil meaning ear. It may be more proper to derive their name from the three Sanskrit gatvara, which in Odia means locomotive and palanquin-bearers may deserve the adjective ‘gatvara’. Another derivation may be from the Sanskrit kadavada, which means speaking indistinctly. There is no more indistinct speech than that of the Gadaba, for their words are rarely heard. Kadavada also means vile or contemptible.

Jatapu

the Jatapu are located in the hills of central India. They are mainly concentrated in the Srikakulam and Visadhapatnam districts of Andhra Pradesh, although there are some communities in the states of Tamil Nadu and Orissa. The Jatapu have no deep history or heritage. Many have even forgotten their original language, Jatapu, which belongs to the Kui-Kuvi branch of Central Dravidian languages. Most of the Jatapu speakers have adopted Telugu as their mother tongue.

As a people, the Jatapu are developing both materially and politically. They own fertile lands and rich forests, and possess more wealth in cash, jewelry, and property than their neighbors. In addition, they hold most of the local government positions. They are now aspiring to higher district and legislative positions. In general, the Jatapu have a friendly, considerate spirit that prevails at all times. They are exceptionally clean, and most Jatapu men are loving fathers.

Koya

The Koya live in the forests, plains, and valleys on both sides of the Godavari River, which lies in the central Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Many also live in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. The Koya are said to have migrated to central India from their original home in Bastar, northern India. They believe their main deity still resides in a cave in the Bastar region. According to Koya mythology, life originated from water.

Koya are primarily farmers. They once shifted from one plot to another, farming various areas. However, the government has now restricted their movement and has encouraged them to farm on fixed plots. The Koya usually live in villages. Occasionally, they can be found living with other tribal and non-tribal peoples. Koya villages are located near dependable water sources.

All Koya belong to one of five sub-divisions called gotrams. Every Koya is born into a clan, and he cannot leave it. Birth, marriage, and death are three important celebrations in Koya villages. The family group is called the kutum.

Chenchu Tribe

Chenchu live in the hills of southern India, primarily in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The higher ranges of the Amrabad Plateau are pure, dense forests and are almost exclusively inhabited by the Chenchu. The Chenchu depend on nature for nearly all of their food supply. They are hunters and gatherers, just as they have been for many generations. In former times, they hunted as a unified tribe.

Many Chenchu have been forced out of their wandering, food-gathering lives by the growing number of peasant farmers. They now work as farmers or forest laborers and live in towns and well-settled villages. Chenchu society consists of clans (extended family units), local groups, and families. They are exogamous, which means that they do not allow marriage within the same clan. They are also patrilineal, tracing the line of descent through the males.

Hill Reddy Tribe

traditionally the Reddy belong to the fourth of the Hindu Varnas, Sudra. One section of the Reddy is called Kapu which means guardian.

The majority of the Reddy communities are non-vegetarian, and all the communities take rice as their staple cereals. Jowar, wheat, bajra and ragi are the other cereals for them.

The Reddy community have social divisions such as clans, lineage, subcastes and sects. These social divisions regulate marital alliances. They speak the Kannada and Telugu languages.

Among the Reddy people, cross-cousin marriages of both types are allowed. Widow remarriage is not permitted. Being a dominant community, the Reddy have been primarily landlords and landholders. Social control is regulated through traditional caste and village councils.

The traditional occupation of most of the Reddy groups is settled cultivation, followed by animal husbandry and labour. Both men and women smoke a homemade cheroot (chutta) which results a high incidence of mouth and throat cancer.

Bagata Tribe

The Bagata are a Scheduled Tribe of India who live in the state of Orissa and also in the state of Andhra Pradesh. They are thought to be one of the aboriginal tribes. They are also called Bagatha, Bagat, Bagodi, Bogad or Bhakta. They work as farmers to earn a living.
The Bagata have festivals, dances and like music. The Dhimsa is one of the dances and Bagata tribes of all ages, young to old take part, using much energy. In March and April, they dance at weddings and at social functions. The Dhimsa dance causes friendships with people in the nearby villages.

In the festive seasons, the dancers from a Bagata village go to other villages to dance and to take part in community feasts. The dances of the Bagata are called Sankidi Kelbar. Perhaps the gospel can best be communicated to them through dance.

The Bagata talk with each other in a form of the Oriya language. Their main language is Telugu. Their local dialect is Adivasi Oriya. Several dialects have their origins and have become well liked among the Bagata. They have a social hierarchy similar to other tribes in Orissa.
Most of the Bagata are Hindus and they worship Hindu gods and goddesses as well as their tribal gods.

 

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