DMPQ- Enumerate the different powers of the President of India.

The President is the head of the Indian State. He is the first citizen of India and acts as a symbol of unity, integrity and solidarity of the nation. He is an integral part of the Parliament though he is not a member of either House. As an integral part of Parliament, the President has been assigned certain powers and

functions such as:

  1. Executive powers
  2. All executive actions of the Government of India are formally taken in his name.
  3. He appoints, the Prime Minister and the other ministers, Attorney General of India and Comptroller and Auditor General of India etc.
  4. Legislative powers
  5. Summoning or prorogue the Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha.
  6. He nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha and two members to the Lok Sabha from the Anglo-Indian Community.
  7. He decides on questions as to disqualifications of members of the Parliament.
  8. He can promulgate ordinances.
  9. Financial powers
  10. Money bills can be introduced in the Parliament only with his prior recommendation.
  11. He constitutes a finance commission after every five years to recommend the distribution of revenues between the Centre and the states.
  12. Judicial powers
  13. He appoints the Chief Justice and the judges of the Supreme Court and high Courts.
  14. He can grant pardon, reprieve, respite and remission of punishment, or suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence.
  15. Military powers
  16. He is the supreme commander of the defence forces of India. In that capacity, he appoints the chiefs of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.
  17. Emergency powers
  18. The Constitution confers extraordinary powers on the President to deal with the following three types of emergencies.
  19. National Emergency (Article 352)
  20. President’s Rule (Article 356 & 365)
  21. Financial Emergency (Article 360)

It has been seen that the Constitution vests all executive powers in the President. He/She also has extensive emergency powers but in reality he is a nominal executive or a constitutional Head of State with no constitutional discretion but situational discretion.

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