It is clearly stated in the preamble that India is not under any outside control. It is a sovereign nation under the people. The people will have right to elect their representatives to rule for themselves to the government. Hence, India has a democratic system of government. Any citizen who is above 18 years of age irrespective of religion, creed, caste, region, property, rich or poor,man or woman can execute adult franchise and have his representive for his/her welfare. It is very of significant provision in the constitution that the person may be from dire poverty or from an Industrialist will have right to one vote and one vote will have one value. Therefore, popular sovereignty is very important feature of the Constitution of India.
Partly Rigid and Partly Flexible
When we read our constitutional document then we come to know that sometime, somewhere the articles of the constitution are very rigid to make any amendment and some where some articles are easily amended according to the situation exists.
Federal System with Unitary Bias
The Constitution has its supremacy over all the political governments. The powers have been divided among the various provinces and states between the Union Government It also provides for the single Citizenship. The Central and State governments must discharge their powers-and duties according to their subjects of legislation and execution. The Constitution have divided the subjects into three lists i.e. Central list, State list and concurrent list. Central list have 99 subjects, State list have 61 and Concurrent list 52 subjects as of now. It means that centre state can pass acts, make legislations only on the subjects listed in their list.
India have adopted the Parliamentary Democracy with President as its Constitutional and Executive head. It means that Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers is the representative of President. Therefore, it is said that President is the nominal head and real power of the Union Government is lying in Prime Minister. Parliament is bicameral and consists of Loksabha and Rajyasabha. These houses pass various laws, acts, with majority of the members of the Parliament.
Principle of Secularism
The word ‘Secular’ is adopted in the Preamble of the Constitution. This means that state has no ‘State Religion1\. At the same time government will not favour anybody religion and also not disfavor the religion of others. State will not interfere in the religious affairs’ of the Individual. According to former President of India R. Venkata Raman “India is not pro-religious, non-religious and anti-religious” i.e. India is secular.The religion will have no influence over any government. The citizens have got right to any religion, worship any God & Goddesses. It is only because of this constitutional secular nature of the state that led to become the President, Prime Minister from any religion or community.
The American Constitution has given its citizens the ‘Dual Citizenship’, one for the country and other from the representing state. Contrary to this Indian constitution provides only Single Citizenship i.e. only for the country and not for the state. It is due to multiplicity of the nature of Indians society that states should not have loyalties only to their States.
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