Green Revolution in India

Green Revolution in India

  • A term coined to describe the emergence and diffusion of new seeds of cereals.
  • Norman-e-Borlaug is the Father of Green Revolution in the world, while Dr. M.S. Swami Nathan is known as the Father of Green Revolution in India.
  • The new cereals were the product of research work and concentrated plant breeding with the objective of creating High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of use to the developing countries.
  • New varieties of wheat were first bred in Mexico in the 1950s and that of rice, like IR-8 (miracle rice) at the International Rice Research Institute, Manila, (Philippines in the 1960s).
  • The increase in the yield from the new seeds has been spectacular as during the last forty years, agricultural production, particularly of wheat and rice, has experienced a great spurt and this has been designated as the Green Revolution.
  • The Green Revolution has been used to mean two different things. Some experts of agriculture use it for referring to a broad transformation of agricultural sector in the developing countries to reduce food shortages.
  • Others use it when referring to the specific plant improvements, notably the development of HYVs.
  • Whatsoever the meaning of Green Revolution may be taken as, the adoption and diffusion of new seeds of wheat and rice has been considered as a significant achievement as it offered great optimism.
  • In fact, these varieties of seeds have revolutionised the agricultural landscape of the developing countries and the problem of food shortage has been reduced.
  • In India, hybridisation of selected crops, i.e. maize, bajra (bulrush millets), and millets began in 1960.
  • The Mexican dwarf varieties of wheat were tried out on a selected scale in 1963-64. Exotic varieties of rice such as Taichung Native I were introduced in India in 1964.
  • The diffusion of HYVs, however, became fully operational in the country in the Kharif season of 1965-66.
  • The diffusion of the new seeds was mainly in the Satluj-Ganga Plains and the Kaveri Delta.
  • Subsequently, a number of varieties of wheat and rice were developed by the Indian scientists and adopted by the Indian farmers.


Merits of the High Yielding Varieties

The High Yielding Varieties have certain advantages over the traditional varieties of cereals which are given as under:


  1. Shorter Life Cycle
  2. Economize on Irrigation Water
  3. Generate more Employment

Geographical Constraints in the Adoption of New Seeds

The new seeds are less resistant to droughts and floods and need an efficient management of water, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides.

The conditions required for the good harvest of new seeds have been described below:

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