Physical factors: Terrain, topography, climate, and soil. which determine agriculture

Physical Factors:

(a) Terrain, Topography, and Altitude

  1. dependent on the geo-ecological conditions; terrain, topography, slope and altitude.
  2. paddy cultivation requires leveled fields, tea plantations perform well in the undulating topography in which water does not remain standing.
  3. Orchards of coconut are found at low altitudes, preferably closer to the sea level, while the apple orchards in the tropical and sub-tropical conditions perform well above 1500 metres above sea level.
  4. Cultivation of crops is rarely done 3500 m above sea-level in the tropical and sub-tropical latitudes.
  5. highly rarified air, low-pressure, low temperature, and shortage of oxygen at high altitudes are the serious impediments not only in the cultivation of crops, but also in keeping dairy cattle.
  6. soils of high mountainous tracts are generally immature which are also less conducive for agriculture.
  7. topographical features also affect the distribution of rainfall.
  8. the windward side gets more rainfall than the leeward side.
  9. Apart from altitude and aspects of slope, the nature of the surface also affects the agricultural activities.
  10. gullied land is least conducive for cropping.
  11. The Chambal ravines in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have put over thousands of hectares of good arable land out of agriculture.
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