Major types of rocks and their characteristics

    They are aggregates or physical mixture of one or more minerals. Minerals on the other hand are made up of two or more elements in a definite ratio. They have a definite chemical composition. Crust is made up of more than 2000 minerals, but out of these, 6 are the most abundant and … Read more


Metal   In chemistry, a metal is an element that readily forms positive ions (cations) and has metallic bonds. Metals are sometimes described as a lattice of positive ions surrounded by a cloud of delocalized electrons. The metals are one of the three groups of elements as distinguished by their ionization and bonding properties, along … Read more


Dams History and extent of dams in India India’s first dam is the Kallanai built on the Cauvery river by King Karikalan of the Chola dynasty around 2,000 years ago. The dam, which is still functional and irrigates millions of acres, spans 329 m in length and 20 m in width. However, it was only … Read more

Forests – Natural Vegetation of India

Forests – Natural Vegetation of India   Table of Contents 1 Forests – Natural Vegetation of India 2 Classification of Natural Vegetation of India 3 Moist Tropical Forests 1Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests or Rain Forests 2Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests 3Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests 4Littoral and Swamp Forests 4 Dry Tropical Forests 1Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests 1.1Casuarina … Read more

Crop Science in India

Crop Science in India In India around 70% of the population earns its livelihood from agriculture. It fulfills the basic need of human beings and animals. It is an important source of raw material for many agro based industries. India’s geographical condition is unique for agriculture because it provides many favorable conditions. There are plain … Read more


                  ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND DAIRY ü  Sustained efforts – Stabilized Primary sector ü   Technology in agriculture – bringing together global leaders in cutting edge technologies to aid small and marginal farmers ü   Drought – a thing of the past – Sustained growth in Agriculture and Allied sectors – Growth despite deficit rainfall ü   Soil Health Cards to farmers – distribution … Read more


Fisheries: ‘Fisheries’ sector is becoming a subsector of Primary sector with consistently increasing contribution to the state economy. The state government envisages development in fisheries sector with a multi pronged strategy with essential focus on increasing fish production and thereby ensure sustainable development. Development of fisheries through effective value chain and boosting exports, government is … Read more

Mining in India and Andhra Pradesh

Mining in India and Andhra Pradesh Mining in india During the last decade, India had witnessed a consistent high growth above 6% mainly due to rapid urbanization that has increased demand for infrastructure and consumer goods. This demand led to more than two fold increase in crude steel production from 32.6 million tonnes (MT) in … Read more

Agro Based Industries

SEED INDUSTRY India is the fifth largest seed market across the globe. It is expected to grow at more than 15% during 2017–2022, and can reach a value of more than US$ 7 Billion by 2022. The seed market is majorly contributed by non-vegetable seeds such as corn, cotton, paddy, wheat, sorghum, sunflower and millets. … Read more

Mineral Based Industries

  Iron and Steel Industry:   Pig Iron Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting of iron ore with a high-carbon fuel such as coke and charcoal and is the basic raw material in Foundry and Casting Industry for the manufacture of various types of castings required for engineering sector. Pig iron usually has … Read more

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