Afforestation and deforestation

Afforestation and deforestation Afforestation Afforestation is the process of planting trees, or sowing seeds, in a barren land devoid of any trees to create a forest. The term should not be confused with reforestation, which is the process of specifically planting native trees into a forest that has decreasing numbers of trees. While reforestation is increasing … Read more

Soil reclamation -(Land reclamation)

Soil reclamation (Land reclamation) Soil reclamation is the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Reclamation efforts may be concerned with the improvement of rainfall-deficient areas by irrigation, the removal of detrimental constituents from salty or alkali lands, the diking and draining of tidal marshes, the smoothing and revegetation … Read more

Solid  waste management – Types of solid waste, impacts of solid waste, recycling and reuse

Solid Waste Management; Types of Solid waste Management; Factors affecting Solid Waste Generation Solid Waste Management Solid waste management is basic public services which every citizen should have access to, both for health and hygiene, and for ensuring a good quality of living. Sanitation here refers to toilet facilities, whereas solid waste management refers to … Read more

Human diseases and Infections- Microorganisms

Disease and decay are not inherent properties of organic objects, nor are they caused by physical damage, it is microorganisms that bring about these changes. We are surrounded by bacteria, virus, and fungi. Many cause diseases in cattle and crops and others are known for entering human bodies and causing various diseases. Examples of familiar … Read more

Soil Types

Soil is defined as upper layer of the earth composed of loose surface material. It is a mixture of many substances including endless variety of minerals, remnants of plants and animals, water and air. It is the end product of continuing interaction between the parent material, local climate, plant and animal organisms and elevation of … Read more

Land Resources and Management

Land Resources: In terms of area India ranks seventh in the world with a total area of 32, 87.263 sq. km. (32.87 crore hectare). It accounts for 2.42% of total area of the world. In absolute terms India is really a big country. However, land man ratio is not favourable because of the huge population … Read more

Correlation between Health & Environment

The enhanced pace of developmental activities and rapid urbanization have resulted in stress on natural resources and quality of life. The trend of increasing pollution in various environmental media is evident from the deteriorating air and water quality, higher noise levels, increasing vehicular emission etc. Realising the urgent need for arresting the trend, Both Central … Read more

Green pharmacy

Green pharmacy Green pharmacy is the design of pharmaceutical products and processes that eliminate or reduce significantly the use and generation of hazardous substances and the prevention/reduction of environmental/safety and health impacts at the source. Herbal medicine also called botanical medicine or phyto medicine. Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use … Read more

Climate justice : a global phenomenon

Climate justice : a global phenomenon The heart of climate justice is the understanding that the urgent action needed to prevent climate change must be based on community-led solutions and the well-being of local communities, Indigenous Peoples and the global poor, as well as biodiversity and intact ecosystems. Climate justice is the understanding that we … Read more


Fermentation Fermentation, chemical process by which molecules such as glucose are broken down anaerobically. More broadly, fermentation is the foaming that occurs during the manufacture of wine and beer, a process at least 10,000 years old. The frothing results from the evolution of carbon dioxide gas, though this was not recognized until the 17th century. … Read more

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