Remedial measures for Soil erosion and Coastal erosion

Remedial measures for Soil erosion and Coastal erosion Soil erosion Using trees to control erosion Trees are often considered to be the universal answer to control soil erosion. Tree roots help prevent landslides on steep slopes and stream bank erosion but they don’t stop erosion on moderately sloping hillslopes.  In forests, the soil surface is … Read more

Wildlife protection act 1972

Wildlife protection act 1972 Introduction Wildlife Protection Act 1972 was passed on August 21, 1972, but was later implemented on September 9, 1972. This act prohibits the capturing, killing, poisoning or trapping of wild animals It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Objectives Prohibition of hunting Protection and … Read more

National Biological Diversity Act 2002

National Biological Diversity Act was enacted in 2002 for giving effect to the provisions of the CBD. Objective of this act is to regulate the access to genetic resources and protection of biodiversity. This act provides for establishment of statutory bodies such as National Biodiversity Authority, State Biodiversity Boards, National and State Biodiversity Funds, Biodiversity … Read more

Forest conservation Act

In order to check rapid deforestation due to forestlands being released by state governments for agriculture, industry and other development projects (allowed under the Indian Forest Act) the federal government enacted the Forest Conservation Act in 1980 with an amendment in 1988. The Act made the prior approval of the federal government necessary for de-reservation … Read more

The Environment ( Protection) act 1986

The Environment Protection Act is an important legislation that provides for coordination of activities of the various regulatory agencies, creation of authorities with adequate powers for environmental protection, regulation of the discharge of environmental pollutants, handling of hazardous substances, etc. The Act provided an opportunity to extend legal protection to non-forest habitats (‘Ecologically Sensitive Areas’) … Read more

Global Warming and Its Impact

Global Warming and Its Impact Global warming is the slow increase in the average temperature of the earth’s atmosphere because an increased amount of the energy (heat) striking the earth from the sun is being trapped in the atmosphere and not radiated out into space. The earth’s atmosphere has always acted like a greenhouse to capture the … Read more

Environmental legislation: International Law, Montreal protocol, Kyoto protocol, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, CITES.

Environmental legislation The awareness and consideration for environment covers several environmental issues such as pollution of water, air and soil, land degradation, industrialization, urbanization, depletion of natural resources etc. Environmental Law plays a very crucial and important role in regulating the use of natural resources and in protecting the environment. The success of environmental legislations … Read more

Vaccines: Introduction to immunity, Fundamental concepts in vaccination, Production of Modern Vaccines (production of Hepatitis vaccine).

Vaccines A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the … Read more

Biodiversity-Definition, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation

Biodiversity-Definition, types, importance, hotspots, threats and conservation The term biodiversity was coined as a contraction of biological diversity by E.O. Wilson in 1985. Biodiversity may be defined as the variety and variability of living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they exist. In other words, biodiversity is the occurrence of different types of ecosystems, … Read more

Biotechnology in agriculture- Bio- pesticides, Bio-fertilizers, Bio-fuels

  Biotechnology is defined in accordance with the Convention on Biological Diversity, i.e. “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use” Biotechnology as applied to food processing in most developing countries makes use of microbial inoculants to enhance properties such as … Read more

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