Irrigation and Hydropower Projects of Andhra Pradesh
Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is in peninsular India consisting of coastal belt on the east and Rayalaseema in the south-west. Therefore, Andhra Pradesh has the advantage of having most of the east flowing rivers in the state bringing in copious supplies from the Western and Eastern Ghats and up to Bay of Bengal. Andhra Pradesh has a heritage of cultivation and irrigation dating back to several centuries. In the past, ancient Kings and rulers built artificial lakes and reservoirs by constructing bunds and anicuts across rivers for creating irrigation potential as well as drinking water for the people. Andhra Pradesh is a riverine state with 40 major, medium and minor rivers. Godavari, Krishna, Vamsadhara, Nagavali and Pennar are major interstate rivers. It helps to develop Irrigation and Hydropower Projects in Andhra pradesh.
- The total irrigation potential created under major and medium projects before 1956 was 29.73 Lakh Acres, and from 1956 to 02/2015 is 39.35 Lakh Acres.
- The Irrigation potential created under Minor irrigation and APSIDC since inception up to 02/2015 is 32.63 Lakh Acres.
- Thus, the total new irrigation potential created under Major, Medium & Minor irrigation and APSIDC in the state is 101.72 Lakh Acres.
- After independence several important schemes implemented like Nagarjunasagar project, Prakasam Barrage, Sir Arthur Cotton Barrage, Tungabhadra Low-level canal, Kurnool-Cuddapah canal, Kadam project, Romperu drainage project and Upper Pennar project.
- The projects under the implementation phase are Sriramsagar, Vamsadhara, Srisalim right branch canal, Yeluru Reservoir Scheme, Godavari delta system, etc.
- Recently Andhra pradesh goverment launch ‘Jalasiri Harati’ scheme to to help keep drought away from the State. Under this Scheme, 28 irrigation projects will be completed.
- Recently Purushothapatnam project has inaugrated. After 40 long years of wait, the people of East Godavari would get irrigation facility to 2.15 lakh acres spread over Rajanagaram, Peddapuram, Prattipadu, Pithapuram, and Jaggampeta through the Purushothapatnam project.
- The major power projects of the state are-the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar (Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel Projects and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal projects.
- Main Hydel power generation projects are Srisailam Hydro Electric Project (installed capacity of 770 MW) and Nagarjunasagar Complex (installed capacity of 960 MW), whereas Vijayawada Thermal Power Station and Kothagudem Thermal Power Station are the main source of thermal power generation with installed capacity of 1260 MW and 1180 MW respectively.
- Simhadri Thermal Power Station with installed capacity of 1000 MW aims at supplying the entire power generated to the state.
Top 10 Dams, Barrage and hydro projects of Andhra Pradesh:-
- Nagarjuna Sagar Dam:-
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam built across the Krishna river forming boundary between Telangana and Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh state. The dam and reservoir has the second biggest water reservoir in India of 405 TMC gross storage capacity.
- Srisailam Dam:-
Srisailam Dam constructed on the Krishna river at the border of Telangana and Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh. The dam is located in the deep gorge in the Nallamala Hills and has the 2nd largest capacity hydroelectric project in the country.
- Prakasham Barrage:-
Prakasham Barrage across the Krishna river is located at the outskirts of Vijayawada in Krishna district and the barrage also serves as a road bridge over a lake. The dam and lake are one of the major tourist attraction of Vijayawada.
- Dowleswaram Barrage:-
Dowleswaram Barrage across the Godavari river in Dowleswaram was built on the last stretch of the Godavari before it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The dam and reservoir has 2.93 Tmcft gross storage capacity and one of the famous Barrage in India.
- Polavaram Dam:-
Polavaram Dam across the Godavari river is a multi-purpose irrigation project under construction in Andhra Pradesh. The dam site will have canal,tunnels and underground hydro electric station and reservoir has live storage 75.2 tmcft. Recently Central Minister Nitin Gadkari Announced that Construction of Polavaram Dam will Completed before 2019 Elections.
- Jalaput Dam:-
Jalaput Dam is built across the Machkund river near by border of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh in Visakhapatnam district. Jalaput Dam and Reservoir has six power generation units and one of the major source Hydroelectric power stations in the state. Machkund Hydro Power Plant India is located at Near Duduma Falls, 70 km from Jeypore, Andhra Pradesh, India.
- Tatipudi Dam:-
Tatipudi Dam and Reservoir is located in Tatipudi of Vizianagaram and major source of drinking water supply to the city of Visakhapatnam. Thatipudi Reservoir has storage capacity of about 3 tmcft and is a major tourist attraction in Visakhapatnam.
- Donkarayi Hydroelectric Project:-
Donkarayi Hydroelectric Project (25 MW) is built across the Sileru river of the godavari basin.
- Penna Ahobilam Balancing Reservoir (PABR):-
Penna Ahobilam Balancing Reservoir (PABR) is an irrigation project located across Penner River in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh state in India. Anantapur city gets its drinking water from the PABR. The reservoir with live storage capacity of 305 million cubic metres is mainly fed by Tungabhdra high level canal originating from the Tungabhdra Dam. A 20 MW hydro electric power station is also constructed at the dam site.
- Pulichinthala Project:-
Pulichintala Project called as KLRao Sagar multipurpose irrigation project is a multi purpose project serving irrigation needs, hydro power generation and flood control. It is a crucial irrigation facility for farmers of four coastal districts of West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur and Prakasam where irrigation facility for 13 lakh acres.
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