Distribution of powers between the Union and States (Union list, State list and Concurrent list) – Issues and challenges.

The Indian constitution provides for a federal framework with powers (legislative ,executive and financial) divided between the center and the states. However, there is no division of judicial power as the constitution has established an integrated judicial system to enforce both the central laws as well as state law. The Indian federation is not the … Read more

Local Governance: 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments.Types of Urban local bodies and Panchayati Raj institutions in India.Sources of Finance in Urban Local Bodies and Panchayati Raj Institutions.

Panchayats and Municipalities Panchayats Village Panchayat In the structure of the Panchayati Raj, the Village Panchayat is the lowest unit. There is a Panchayat for each village or a group of villages in case the population of these villages happens to be too small. The Panchayat chiefly consists of representatives elected by the people of … Read more

Union Parliament and State Legislatures.

Parliament is the central institution through which the will of the people is expressed, laws are passed and government is held to account. It plays a vital role in a democracy, and endeavours to be truly representative, transparent, accessible, accountable and effective in its many functions. The Parliament has two Houses–Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha. … Read more

Privileges and immunities of Parliament and its Members

Parliamentary privilege  is a legal immunity enjoyed by members of certain legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made in the course of their legislative duties. The Presiding Officer i.e. Speaker in case of Lok Sabha and Chairman in case of Rajya Sabha, is the custodian … Read more

Emergency Provisions of the Constitution

An emergency is a situation demanding immediate action.The emergency provisions under Indian constitution can be traced back to the British rule in India, when by Act of parliament crown established its sovereignty over company’s territories in India in 1861 . The Governor General under the provisions exercised wide powers both legislative and executive. He was … Read more

Public Interest Litigation

“Public interest Litigation”,is a litigation filed in a court of law, for the protection of “Public Interest” , such as pollution, Terrorism, Road safety, constructional hazards etc. Article 32 of the Indian Constitution contains the tool which directly joins the public with the judiciary. Public Interest Litigation is not mentioned in any constitution or a … Read more

Fundamental Rights and Duties

The Indian constitution originally provided 7 categories of fundamental rights. But one fundamental right, that to property was removed from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment. Right to property now is an ordinary legal right. Thus there are now 6 categories of fundamental rights. These are:  (1) Right to equality (Arts. 14-18). In … Read more

Directive Principles of State Policy

An important feature of the constitution is the Directive Principles of State Policy. Although the Directive Principles are asserted to be “fundamental in the governance of the country,” they are not legally enforceable. Instead, they are guidelines for creating a social order characterized by social, economic, and political justice, liberty, equality, and fraternity as enunciated … Read more

Bifurcation of powers between centre and state (state list, union list and concurrent list)

Bifurcation of powers between centre and state (state list, union list and concurrent list) The main characteristic of a federal constitution is the distribution of powers between the union and the states. The Indian constitution provides for a new kind of federalism to meet India’s peculiar needs. In the matter of distribution of powers, the … Read more

Difference between substantial and procedural laws

Difference between substantial and procedural laws Procedural laws Procedural law provides the process that a case will go through (whether it goes to trial or not). The procedural law determines how a proceeding concerning the enforcement of substantive law will occur. Substantive law defines how the facts in the case will be handled, as well … Read more

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