DMPQ- Mention the list of Family / Personal laws in India. Explain the need of Uniform Civil Code.

Law relating to marriage and/or divorce has been codified in different enactments applicable to people of different religions. These are:

  • The Converts’ Marriage Dissolution Act, 1866
  • The Indian Divorce Act, 1869
  • The Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872
  • The Kazis Act, 1880
  • The Anand Marriage Act, 1909
  • The Indian Succession Act, 1925
  • The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929
  • The Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1936
  • The Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, 1939
  • The Special Marriage Act, 1954
  • The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955
  • The Foreign Marriage Act, 1969 and
  • The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986.

The Special Marriage Act, 1954 extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir, but also applies to the citizens of India domiciled in Jammu and Kashmir. Persons governed by this Act can specifically register marriage under the said Act even though they are of different religious faiths. The Act also provides that the marriage celebrated under any other form can also be registered under the Special Marriage Act, if it satisfies the requirements of the Act. The section 4(b) (iii) of the Act was amended to omit the words “or epilepsy.” Sections 36 and 38 have been amended to provide that an application for alimony pendente lite or the maintenance and education of minor children be disposed of within 60 days from the date of service of notice on the respondent.

Uniform civil code is the ongoing point of debate within Indian mandate to replace personal laws based on the scriptures and customs of each major religious community in India with a common set of rules governing every citizen.

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