Although, the remote sensing includes a wide array of technologies and types, but they all are based on certain common concepts with the same basic components. The basic components of remote sensing system are given below:
• Energy source
• Transmission path, and
The target is the object or material being studied. All the components in the system work together, to measure and record the information about the target without making physical contact. The energy source illuminates or provides electromagnetic energy to the target.
The energy interaction with the target depends on the target properties and the radiation. It also acts as a medium for transmitting the information from target to the sensor. The sensor is a remote device to collect and record the electromagnetic radiation.
Sensors are also used to measure the given-off energy or emitted energy by the target; reflected-off energy of the target; or transmitted energy from the target. After recording of energy, the resulting set of data is transmitted to the receiving station.
At receiving station, the data is processed to a usable format, i.e., in the form of image. The image is then interpreted to extract the informations about target. The interpretation of image can be done visually or electronically with the help of computers and image processing softwares.
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