DMPQ- . What is the concept of Metagenomics? Discuss the potential applications of it.

. Metagenomics is the study of a collection of genetic material (genomes) from a mixed community of organisms. Metagenomics usually refers to the study of microbial communities.

“Metagenomics” is the two words “meta” and “genomics”. So genomics is obtaining the DNA sequence, but meta implies that we’re doing it of many organisms together. And metagenomics is usually used when we are studying microbial communities where we can’t separate one microbe from another. Like there may be two bacteria that grow together, and so when you take the DNA sequence, you’re getting the DNA sequence of two bacteria together.

Currently, there is a global political drive to promote white biotechnology as a key feature of modern industrialized society. Metagenomics has the potential to substantially impact industrial production.

Bioactive compounds

Unique bioactive compounds have been identified through metagenomics studies, including terragines, violacein, and indirubin. Drugs originated from marine microorganisms, such as cytarabine (anti-cancer), cephalosporins (anti-microbial), and vidarabine (anti-virus), have been established on the pharmaceutical market.

Antibiotics

Novel antibiotics and enzymes are among the early discoveries from metagenomics. The discovery of streptomycin, turbomycin, and other antibiotics sprang from basic studies of the soil microbiome. Functional metagenomics serves to find novel antibiotics or novel antibiotic resistance genes, and descriptive metagenomics serves to analyze changes in the composition of the microbiome and to track the presence and abundance of known antibiotic resistance genes in different environments.

Enzymes

New genetic information on industrial enzymes, such as lipases, proteases, lyases, amylases, nitrilases, has been produced by metagenomics approaches. Enzymes have a wide range of applications, including the production of highly active pharmaceuticals and active ingredients (such as high-performance laundry detergents). The versatility of industrial enzymes allows their use in the processes to degrade natural polymers such as cellulose, proteins and starch, as well as for the synthesis of asymmetric chemicals.

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