The endocrine system is made up of the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. Although there are eight major endocrine glands scattered throughout the body, they are still considered to be one system because they have similar functions, similar mechanisms of influence, and many important interrelationships.
|Pituitary Gland||It is the endocrine system’s master gland. It uses the information it gets from your brain to tell other glands in your body what to do. It makes many important hormones,— luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone
(TSH), oxytocin (a hormone produced by the hypothalamus and secreted by the pituitary gland.), anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
o It influences — reproduction, growth, childbirth, breastfeeding, hormone regulation
|Pineal Gland||It makes a chemical called melatonin that helps the body get ready to go to sleep.|
|Thyroid gland||This gland makes thyroid hormone, which controls metabolism. If this gland doesn’t make enough (a condition called hypothyroidism), everything happens more slowly. The heart rate might slow down.
Symptoms like constipation and weight gain are seen.
o If it makes too much (hyperthyroidism), everything speeds up. Heart rate increases, diarrhea, weight Loss are seen
o Major hormones — tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), calcitonin influence — metabolism, bone health
|Parathyroid gland||This is a set of four small glands behind the thyroid. They play a role in bone health. The glands control levels of calcium and phosphorus.
Major hormones — parathyroid hormone influences — calcium and vitamin D regulation
|Adrenal glands||Best known for making the “fight or flight” hormone adrenaline (also called epinephrine), these two glands also make hormones called corticosteroids. They affect your metabolism and sexual function, among other things. Major hormones —adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline, cortisol, aldosterone influences — stress response and blood pressure/salt control|
|Pancreas||This organ is part of both digestive and endocrine systems. It makes digestive enzymes that break down food. It also makes the hormones insulin and glucagon. These ensure right amount of sugar in bloodstream and cells. If it doesn’t make insulin, which is the case for people with type 1 diabetes, blood sugar levels can get dangerously high. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas usually makes some insulin but not enough.
o Major hormones — insulin, glucagon, somatostatin influences — blood sugar control
|Ovaries (females only)||In women, these organs make estrogen and progesterone. These hormones help develop breasts at puberty, regulate the menstrual cycle, and support a pregnancy. Major hormones — estrogen, progesterone influences — female characteristics|
|Testes (males only):||In men, the testes make testosterone. It helps them grow facial and body hair at puberty. It plays role in making sperm.
o Major hormones — testosterone influences — male characteristics
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