An ecosystem is defined as the structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. Ecosystems vary greatly in size and elements, but each is a functioning unit of nature. There are two components of ecosystems i.e. biotic and abiotic.
Ecosytems perform various types of functions i.e. energy flow through food chain, nutrient cycling, ecological succession, feedback control mechanism. There are two types of ecosystems i.e. natural and man made. Ecosystem provides a wide range of goods and services which are as follows:
- It help to purify air and water.
- It help to prevent natural disaster like floods and droughts.
- It helps in the generation and renewal of natural and soil vegetation.
- Maintenance of biodiversity.
- It helps to maintain a thermal equilibirium.
- It provides aesthetic beauty that lift the human spirit.
- It also acts as a source of food, wood and fiber , fuel and fresh water
Hence, ecosystem provides wide range of services which can be clubbed into provisioning services, Regulation services , cultural services and supporting services. Because of its importance, it is extremely important to reduce the threat of irreversible damage to our ecological ecosystems.
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