What is nanotechnology? Write down its application and mention programmes initiated by government of India?

Nanoscience and Nanotechnology involves the concept of manipulating the extremely small things at nanoscale. At nanoscale things behave differently and this properties can be utilised across various fields of science like chemistry, biology, medicine, physics and material science. Nanotechnology has various application:

  • Medicine: Nanoparticle can be used as effective drug deliver. This will help to attack the foreign particle more effectively. It will enhance the bio efficiency of drugs. It will prevent the collateral damage in chemotherapy.
  • Electronics: Nanotechnology can help to increase the speed of processor by decreasing the size. It will also decrease the power consumption. It also lead to decrease in the size of the equipment.
  • Food: It will help to make lighter and more healthy packaging for the food products. It will help to increase shell life of the food.
  • Fuel cell:          Nanotechnology is being used to reduce the cost of catalysts used in fuel cells to produce hydrogen ions from fuel such as methanol and to improve the efficiency of membranes used in fuel cells to separate hydrogen ions from other gases such as oxygen.
  • Space: Nanotechnology may hold the key to making space-flight more practical. Advancements in nanomaterials make lightweight spacecraft and a cable for the space elevator possible. By significantly reducing the amount of rocket fuel required, these advances could lower the cost of reaching orbit and traveling in space.
  • Clean water: Nanotechnology is being used to develop solutions to three very different problems in water quality. One challenge is the removal of industrial wastes, such as a cleaning solvent called TCE, from groundwater. Nanoparticles can be used to convert the contaminating chemical through a chemical reaction to make it harmless.
  • Miscellaneous; As chemical sensor to detect even slight change in concentration, In sporting industry to develop light equipment’s and fabrics.

 

Programmes launched by GOI:

  • Nano mission launched in May, 2007 by deptt of science and tech, currently 2nd phase is going on.
  • Loans to start ups on Nano mission
  • To encourage research in Nanotech national research awards have been initiated.

 

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